[ -I dirs ] [ -d[num] ] [ -k from/to ]
[ -m min-count ] [ -R map_file ] [ -t table-length ]
[ --[no-]annotated-source[= name] ]
[ --[no-]exec-counts[= name] ]
[ --[no-]flat-profile[= name] ] [ --[no-]graph[=name] ]
[ --[no-]time= name] [ --all-lines ] [ --brief ]
[ --debug[= level] ] [ --function-ordering ]
[ --file-ordering map_file ] [ --directory-path=dirs ]
[ --display-unused-functions ] [ --file-format= name ]
[ --file-info ] [ --help ] [ --line ] [ --inline-file-names ]
[ --min-count= n ] [ --no-static ] [ --print-path ]
[ --separate-files ] [ --static-call-graph ] [ --sum ]
[ --table-length= len ] [ --traditional ] [ --version ]
[ --width= n ] [ --ignore-non-functions ]
[ --demangle[= STYLE] ] [ --no-demangle ]
[ image-file ] [ profile-file ... ]
- The -A option causes "gprof" to print annotated source code. If symspec is specified, print output only for matching symbols.
- If the -b option is given, "gprof" doesn't print the verbose blurbs that try to explain the meaning of all of the fields in the tables. This is useful if you intend to print out the output, or are tired of seeing the blurbs.
- The -C option causes "gprof" to print a
tally of functions and the number of times each was called. If
symspec is specified, print tally only for matching symbols.
- The -i option causes "gprof" to display summary information about the profile data file(s) and then exit. The number of histogram, call graph, and basic-block count records is displayed.
- "-I dirs"
- The -I option specifies a list of search directories in which to find source files. Environment variable GPROF_PATH can also be used to convey this information. Used mostly for annotated source output.
- The -J option causes "gprof" not to print annotated source code. If symspec is specified, "gprof" prints annotated source, but excludes matching symbols.
- Normally, source filenames are printed with the path component suppressed. The -L option causes "gprof" to print the full pathname of source filenames, which is determined from symbolic debugging information in the image file and is relative to the directory in which the compiler was invoked.
- The -p option causes "gprof" to print a flat profile. If symspec is specified, print flat profile only for matching symbols.
- The -P option causes "gprof" to suppress printing a flat profile. If symspec is specified, "gprof" prints a flat profile, but excludes matching symbols.
- The -q option causes "gprof" to print the call graph analysis. If symspec is specified, print call graph only for matching symbols and their children.
- The -Q option causes "gprof" to suppress printing the call graph. If symspec is specified, "gprof" prints a call graph, but excludes matching symbols.
- The -t option causes the num most active source lines in each source file to be listed when source annotation is enabled. The default is 10.
- This option affects annotated source output only. Normally, "gprof" prints annotated source files to standard-output. If this option is specified, annotated source for a file named path/filename is generated in the file filename -ann. If the underlying file system would truncate filename-ann so that it overwrites the original filename, "gprof" generates annotated source in the file filename.ann instead (if the original file name has an extension, that extension is replaced with .ann).
- The -Z option causes "gprof" not to print a tally of functions and the number of times each was called. If symspec is specified, print tally, but exclude matching symbols.
- The --function-ordering option causes
"gprof" to print a suggested function ordering for the program
based on profiling data. This option suggests an ordering which may
improve paging, tlb and cache behavior for the program on systems which
support arbitrary ordering of functions in an executable.
- "-R map_file"
- "--file-ordering map_file"
- The --file-ordering option causes "gprof"
to print a suggested .o link line ordering for the program based on
profiling data. This option suggests an ordering which may improve paging,
tlb and cache behavior for the program on systems which do not support
arbitrary ordering of functions in an executable.
c-parse.o:00000000 T yyparse c-parse.o:00000004 C yyerrflag c-lang.o:00000000 T maybe_objc_method_name c-lang.o:00000000 T print_lang_statistics c-lang.o:00000000 T recognize_objc_keyword c-decl.o:00000000 T print_lang_identifier c-decl.o:00000000 T print_lang_type ...
- The -T option causes "gprof" to print its output in "traditional" BSD style.
- "-w width"
- Sets width of output lines to width. Currently only used when printing the function index at the bottom of the call graph.
- This option affects annotated source output only. By default, only the lines at the beginning of a basic-block are annotated. If this option is specified, every line in a basic-block is annotated by repeating the annotation for the first line. This behavior is similar to "tcov"'s -a.
- These options control whether C++ symbol names should be demangled when printing output. The default is to demangle symbols. The "--no-demangle" option may be used to turn off demangling. Different compilers have different mangling styles. The optional demangling style argument can be used to choose an appropriate demangling style for your compiler.
- The -a option causes "gprof" to suppress the printing of statically declared (private) functions. (These are functions whose names are not listed as global, and which are not visible outside the file/function/block where they were defined.) Time spent in these functions, calls to/from them, etc., will all be attributed to the function that was loaded directly before it in the executable file. This option affects both the flat profile and the call graph.
- The -c option causes the call graph of the program to be augmented by a heuristic which examines the text space of the object file and identifies function calls in the binary machine code. Since normal call graph records are only generated when functions are entered, this option identifies children that could have been called, but never were. Calls to functions that were not compiled with profiling enabled are also identified, but only if symbol table entries are present for them. Calls to dynamic library routines are typically not found by this option. Parents or children identified via this heuristic are indicated in the call graph with call counts of 0.
- The -D option causes "gprof" to ignore symbols which are not known to be functions. This option will give more accurate profile data on systems where it is supported (Solaris and HPUX for example).
- "-k from/to"
- The -k option allows you to delete from the call graph any arcs from symbols matching symspec from to those matching symspec to.
- The -l option enables line-by-line profiling, which
causes histogram hits to be charged to individual source code lines,
instead of functions. This feature only works with programs compiled by
older versions of the "gcc" compiler. Newer versions of
"gcc" are designed to work with the "gcov" tool
- This option causes "gprof" to print the source file after each symbol in both the flat profile and the call graph. The full path to the file is printed if used with the -L option.
- "-m num"
- This option affects execution count output only. Symbols that are executed less than num times are suppressed.
- The -n option causes "gprof", in its call graph analysis, to only propagate times for symbols matching symspec.
- The -n option causes "gprof", in its call graph analysis, not to propagate times for symbols matching symspec.
- The -S option causes "gprof" to read an external symbol table file, such as /proc/kallsyms, rather than read the symbol table from the given object file (the default is "a.out"). This is useful for profiling kernel modules.
- If you give the -z option, "gprof" will mention all functions in the flat profile, even those that were never called, and that had no time spent in them. This is useful in conjunction with the -c option for discovering which routines were never called.
- The -d num option specifies debugging options. If num is not specified, enable all debugging.
- The -h option prints command line usage.
- Selects the format of the profile data files. Recognized formats are auto (the default), bsd, 4.4bsd, magic, and prof (not yet supported).
- The -s option causes "gprof" to summarize
the information in the profile data files it read in, and write out a
profile data file called gmon.sum, which contains all the
information from the profile data files that "gprof" read in.
The file gmon.sum may be one of the specified input files; the
effect of this is to merge the data in the other input files into
- The -v flag causes "gprof" to print the current version number, and then exit.
- "-e function_name"
- The -e function option tells "gprof" to not print information about the function function_name (and its children...) in the call graph. The function will still be listed as a child of any functions that call it, but its index number will be shown as [not printed]. More than one -e option may be given; only one function_name may be indicated with each -e option.
- "-E function_name"
- The "-E function" option works like the "-e" option, but time spent in the function (and children who were not called from anywhere else), will not be used to compute the percentages-of-time for the call graph. More than one -E option may be given; only one function_name may be indicated with each -E option.
- "-f function_name"
- The -f function option causes "gprof" to limit the call graph to the function function_name and its children (and their children...). More than one -f option may be given; only one function_name may be indicated with each -f option.
- "-F function_name"
- The -F function option works like the "-f" option, but only time spent in the function and its children (and their children...) will be used to determine total-time and percentages-of-time for the call graph. More than one -F option may be given; only one function_name may be indicated with each -F option. The -F option overrides the -E option.
- the namelist and text space.
- dynamic call graph and profile.
- summarized dynamic call graph and profile.