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GCC(1) GNU GCC(1)

NAME

gcc - GNU project C and C++ compiler

SYNOPSIS

gcc [ -c|-S|-E] [-std=standard]
[ -g] [-pg] [-Olevel]
[ -Wwarn...] [-Wpedantic]
[ -Idir...] [-Ldir...]
[ -Dmacro[=defn]...] [-Umacro]
[ -foption...] [-mmachine-option...]
[ -o outfile] [@file] infile...
Only the most useful options are listed here; see below for the remainder. g++ accepts mostly the same options as gcc.

DESCRIPTION

When you invoke GCC, it normally does preprocessing, compilation, assembly and linking. The "overall options" allow you to stop this process at an intermediate stage. For example, the -c option says not to run the linker. Then the output consists of object files output by the assembler.
Other options are passed on to one or more stages of processing. Some options control the preprocessor and others the compiler itself. Yet other options control the assembler and linker; most of these are not documented here, since you rarely need to use any of them.
Most of the command-line options that you can use with GCC are useful for C programs; when an option is only useful with another language (usually C++), the explanation says so explicitly. If the description for a particular option does not mention a source language, you can use that option with all supported languages.
The usual way to run GCC is to run the executable called gcc, or machine -gcc when cross-compiling, or machine-gcc-version to run a specific version of GCC. When you compile C++ programs, you should invoke GCC as g++ instead.
The gcc program accepts options and file names as operands. Many options have multi-letter names; therefore multiple single-letter options may not be grouped: -dv is very different from -d -v.
You can mix options and other arguments. For the most part, the order you use doesn't matter. Order does matter when you use several options of the same kind; for example, if you specify -L more than once, the directories are searched in the order specified. Also, the placement of the -l option is significant.
Many options have long names starting with -f or with -W---for example, -fmove-loop-invariants, -Wformat and so on. Most of these have both positive and negative forms; the negative form of -ffoo is -fno-foo. This manual documents only one of these two forms, whichever one is not the default.

OPTIONS

Option Summary

Here is a summary of all the options, grouped by type. Explanations are in the following sections.
Overall Options
-c -S -E -o file -x language -v -### --help[=class[,...]] --target-help --version -pass-exit-codes -pipe -specs=file -wrapper @file -fplugin=file -fplugin-arg- name=arg -fdump-ada-spec[-slim] -fada-spec-parent=unit -fdump-go-spec=file
C Language Options
-ansi -std=standard -fgnu89-inline -fpermitted-flt-eval-methods= standard -aux-info filename -fallow-parameterless-variadic-functions -fno-asm -fno-builtin -fno-builtin- function -fgimple -fhosted -ffreestanding -fopenacc -fopenmp -fopenmp-simd -fms-extensions -fplan9-extensions -fsso-struct= endianness -fallow-single-precision -fcond-mismatch -flax-vector-conversions -fsigned-bitfields -fsigned-char -funsigned-bitfields -funsigned-char
C++ Language Options
-fabi-version=n -fno-access-control -faligned-new=n -fargs-in-order=n -fcheck-new -fconstexpr-depth=n -fconstexpr-loop-limit= n -ffriend-injection -fno-elide-constructors -fno-enforce-eh-specs -ffor-scope -fno-for-scope -fno-gnu-keywords -fno-implicit-templates -fno-implicit-inline-templates -fno-implement-inlines -fms-extensions -fnew-inheriting-ctors -fnew-ttp-matching -fno-nonansi-builtins -fnothrow-opt -fno-operator-names -fno-optional-diags -fpermissive -fno-pretty-templates -frepo -fno-rtti -fsized-deallocation -ftemplate-backtrace-limit=n -ftemplate-depth=n -fno-threadsafe-statics -fuse-cxa-atexit -fno-weak -nostdinc++ -fvisibility-inlines-hidden -fvisibility-ms-compat -fext-numeric-literals -Wabi=n -Wabi-tag -Wconversion-null -Wctor-dtor-privacy -Wdelete-non-virtual-dtor -Wliteral-suffix -Wmultiple-inheritance -Wnamespaces -Wnarrowing -Wnoexcept -Wnoexcept-type -Wnon-virtual-dtor -Wreorder -Wregister -Weffc++ -Wstrict-null-sentinel -Wtemplates -Wno-non-template-friend -Wold-style-cast -Woverloaded-virtual -Wno-pmf-conversions -Wsign-promo -Wvirtual-inheritance
Objective-C and Objective-C++ Language Options
-fconstant-string-class=class-name -fgnu-runtime -fnext-runtime -fno-nil-receivers -fobjc-abi-version= n -fobjc-call-cxx-cdtors -fobjc-direct-dispatch -fobjc-exceptions -fobjc-gc -fobjc-nilcheck -fobjc-std=objc1 -fno-local-ivars -fivar-visibility=[ public|protected|private|package] -freplace-objc-classes -fzero-link -gen-decls -Wassign-intercept -Wno-protocol -Wselector -Wstrict-selector-match -Wundeclared-selector
Diagnostic Message Formatting Options
-fmessage-length=n -fdiagnostics-show-location=[ once|every-line] -fdiagnostics-color=[ auto|never|always] -fno-diagnostics-show-option -fno-diagnostics-show-caret -fdiagnostics-parseable-fixits -fdiagnostics-generate-patch -fno-show-column
Warning Options
-fsyntax-only -fmax-errors=n -Wpedantic -pedantic-errors -w -Wextra -Wall -Waddress -Waggregate-return -Walloc-zero -Walloc-size-larger-than=n -Walloca -Walloca-larger-than= n -Wno-aggressive-loop-optimizations -Warray-bounds -Warray-bounds= n -Wno-attributes -Wbool-compare -Wbool-operation -Wno-builtin-declaration-mismatch -Wno-builtin-macro-redefined -Wc90-c99-compat -Wc99-c11-compat -Wc++-compat -Wc++11-compat -Wc++14-compat -Wcast-align -Wcast-qual -Wchar-subscripts -Wchkp -Wclobbered -Wcomment -Wconditionally-supported -Wconversion -Wcoverage-mismatch -Wno-cpp -Wdangling-else -Wdate-time -Wdelete-incomplete -Wno-deprecated -Wno-deprecated-declarations -Wno-designated-init -Wdisabled-optimization -Wno-discarded-qualifiers -Wno-discarded-array-qualifiers -Wno-div-by-zero -Wdouble-promotion -Wduplicated-branches -Wduplicated-cond -Wempty-body -Wenum-compare -Wno-endif-labels -Wexpansion-to-defined -Werror -Werror=* -Wfatal-errors -Wfloat-equal -Wformat -Wformat=2 -Wno-format-contains-nul -Wno-format-extra-args -Wformat-nonliteral -Wformat-overflow=n -Wformat-security -Wformat-signedness -Wformat-truncation= n -Wformat-y2k -Wframe-address -Wframe-larger-than= len -Wno-free-nonheap-object -Wjump-misses-init -Wignored-qualifiers -Wignored-attributes -Wincompatible-pointer-types -Wimplicit -Wimplicit-fallthrough -Wimplicit-fallthrough= n -Wimplicit-function-declaration -Wimplicit-int -Winit-self -Winline -Wno-int-conversion -Wint-in-bool-context -Wno-int-to-pointer-cast -Winvalid-memory-model -Wno-invalid-offsetof -Winvalid-pch -Wlarger-than= len -Wlogical-op -Wlogical-not-parentheses -Wlong-long -Wmain -Wmaybe-uninitialized -Wmemset-elt-size -Wmemset-transposed-args -Wmisleading-indentation -Wmissing-braces -Wmissing-field-initializers -Wmissing-include-dirs -Wno-multichar -Wnonnull -Wnonnull-compare -Wnormalized=[none|id|nfc| nfkc] -Wnull-dereference -Wodr -Wno-overflow -Wopenmp-simd -Woverride-init-side-effects -Woverlength-strings -Wpacked -Wpacked-bitfield-compat -Wpadded -Wparentheses -Wno-pedantic-ms-format -Wplacement-new -Wplacement-new=n -Wpointer-arith -Wpointer-compare -Wno-pointer-to-int-cast -Wno-pragmas -Wredundant-decls -Wrestrict -Wno-return-local-addr -Wreturn-type -Wsequence-point -Wshadow -Wno-shadow-ivar -Wshadow=global, -Wshadow=local, -Wshadow=compatible-local -Wshift-overflow -Wshift-overflow=n -Wshift-count-negative -Wshift-count-overflow -Wshift-negative-value -Wsign-compare -Wsign-conversion -Wfloat-conversion -Wno-scalar-storage-order -Wsizeof-pointer-memaccess -Wsizeof-array-argument -Wstack-protector -Wstack-usage= len -Wstrict-aliasing -Wstrict-aliasing=n -Wstrict-overflow -Wstrict-overflow= n -Wstringop-overflow=n -Wsuggest-attribute=[ pure|const|noreturn|format] -Wsuggest-final-types -Wsuggest-final-methods -Wsuggest-override -Wmissing-format-attribute -Wsubobject-linkage -Wswitch -Wswitch-bool -Wswitch-default -Wswitch-enum -Wswitch-unreachable -Wsync-nand -Wsystem-headers -Wtautological-compare -Wtrampolines -Wtrigraphs -Wtype-limits -Wundef -Wuninitialized -Wunknown-pragmas -Wunsafe-loop-optimizations -Wunsuffixed-float-constants -Wunused -Wunused-function -Wunused-label -Wunused-local-typedefs -Wunused-macros -Wunused-parameter -Wno-unused-result -Wunused-value -Wunused-variable -Wunused-const-variable -Wunused-const-variable= n -Wunused-but-set-parameter -Wunused-but-set-variable -Wuseless-cast -Wvariadic-macros -Wvector-operation-performance -Wvla -Wvla-larger-than=n -Wvolatile-register-var -Wwrite-strings -Wzero-as-null-pointer-constant -Whsa
C and Objective-C-only Warning Options
-Wbad-function-cast -Wmissing-declarations -Wmissing-parameter-type -Wmissing-prototypes -Wnested-externs -Wold-style-declaration -Wold-style-definition -Wstrict-prototypes -Wtraditional -Wtraditional-conversion -Wdeclaration-after-statement -Wpointer-sign
Debugging Options
-g -glevel -gcoff -gdwarf -gdwarf-version -ggdb -grecord-gcc-switches -gno-record-gcc-switches -gstabs -gstabs+ -gstrict-dwarf -gno-strict-dwarf -gcolumn-info -gno-column-info -gvms -gxcoff -gxcoff+ -gz[ =type] -fdebug-prefix-map=old=new -fdebug-types-section -feliminate-dwarf2-dups -fno-eliminate-unused-debug-types -femit-struct-debug-baseonly -femit-struct-debug-reduced -femit-struct-debug-detailed[= spec-list] -feliminate-unused-debug-symbols -femit-class-debug-always -fno-merge-debug-strings -fno-dwarf2-cfi-asm -fvar-tracking -fvar-tracking-assignments
Optimization Options
-faggressive-loop-optimizations -falign-functions[=n] -falign-jumps[=n] -falign-labels[=n] -falign-loops[= n] -fassociative-math -fauto-profile -fauto-profile[= path] -fauto-inc-dec -fbranch-probabilities -fbranch-target-load-optimize -fbranch-target-load-optimize2 -fbtr-bb-exclusive -fcaller-saves -fcombine-stack-adjustments -fconserve-stack -fcompare-elim -fcprop-registers -fcrossjumping -fcse-follow-jumps -fcse-skip-blocks -fcx-fortran-rules -fcx-limited-range -fdata-sections -fdce -fdelayed-branch -fdelete-null-pointer-checks -fdevirtualize -fdevirtualize-speculatively -fdevirtualize-at-ltrans -fdse -fearly-inlining -fipa-sra -fexpensive-optimizations -ffat-lto-objects -ffast-math -ffinite-math-only -ffloat-store -fexcess-precision= style -fforward-propagate -ffp-contract= style -ffunction-sections -fgcse -fgcse-after-reload -fgcse-las -fgcse-lm -fgraphite-identity -fgcse-sm -fhoist-adjacent-loads -fif-conversion -fif-conversion2 -findirect-inlining -finline-functions -finline-functions-called-once -finline-limit= n -finline-small-functions -fipa-cp -fipa-cp-clone -fipa-bit-cp -fipa-vrp -fipa-pta -fipa-profile -fipa-pure-const -fipa-reference -fipa-icf -fira-algorithm=algorithm -fira-region=region -fira-hoist-pressure -fira-loop-pressure -fno-ira-share-save-slots -fno-ira-share-spill-slots -fisolate-erroneous-paths-dereference -fisolate-erroneous-paths-attribute -fivopts -fkeep-inline-functions -fkeep-static-functions -fkeep-static-consts -flimit-function-alignment -flive-range-shrinkage -floop-block -floop-interchange -floop-strip-mine -floop-unroll-and-jam -floop-nest-optimize -floop-parallelize-all -flra-remat -flto -flto-compression-level -flto-partition=alg -fmerge-all-constants -fmerge-constants -fmodulo-sched -fmodulo-sched-allow-regmoves -fmove-loop-invariants -fno-branch-count-reg -fno-defer-pop -fno-fp-int-builtin-inexact -fno-function-cse -fno-guess-branch-probability -fno-inline -fno-math-errno -fno-peephole -fno-peephole2 -fno-printf-return-value -fno-sched-interblock -fno-sched-spec -fno-signed-zeros -fno-toplevel-reorder -fno-trapping-math -fno-zero-initialized-in-bss -fomit-frame-pointer -foptimize-sibling-calls -fpartial-inlining -fpeel-loops -fpredictive-commoning -fprefetch-loop-arrays -fprofile-correction -fprofile-use -fprofile-use=path -fprofile-values -fprofile-reorder-functions -freciprocal-math -free -frename-registers -freorder-blocks -freorder-blocks-algorithm= algorithm -freorder-blocks-and-partition -freorder-functions -frerun-cse-after-loop -freschedule-modulo-scheduled-loops -frounding-math -fsched2-use-superblocks -fsched-pressure -fsched-spec-load -fsched-spec-load-dangerous -fsched-stalled-insns-dep[= n] -fsched-stalled-insns[= n] -fsched-group-heuristic -fsched-critical-path-heuristic -fsched-spec-insn-heuristic -fsched-rank-heuristic -fsched-last-insn-heuristic -fsched-dep-count-heuristic -fschedule-fusion -fschedule-insns -fschedule-insns2 -fsection-anchors -fselective-scheduling -fselective-scheduling2 -fsel-sched-pipelining -fsel-sched-pipelining-outer-loops -fsemantic-interposition -fshrink-wrap -fshrink-wrap-separate -fsignaling-nans -fsingle-precision-constant -fsplit-ivs-in-unroller -fsplit-loops -fsplit-paths -fsplit-wide-types -fssa-backprop -fssa-phiopt -fstdarg-opt -fstore-merging -fstrict-aliasing -fstrict-overflow -fthread-jumps -ftracer -ftree-bit-ccp -ftree-builtin-call-dce -ftree-ccp -ftree-ch -ftree-coalesce-vars -ftree-copy-prop -ftree-dce -ftree-dominator-opts -ftree-dse -ftree-forwprop -ftree-fre -fcode-hoisting -ftree-loop-if-convert -ftree-loop-im -ftree-phiprop -ftree-loop-distribution -ftree-loop-distribute-patterns -ftree-loop-ivcanon -ftree-loop-linear -ftree-loop-optimize -ftree-loop-vectorize -ftree-parallelize-loops=n -ftree-pre -ftree-partial-pre -ftree-pta -ftree-reassoc -ftree-sink -ftree-slsr -ftree-sra -ftree-switch-conversion -ftree-tail-merge -ftree-ter -ftree-vectorize -ftree-vrp -funconstrained-commons -funit-at-a-time -funroll-all-loops -funroll-loops -funsafe-math-optimizations -funswitch-loops -fipa-ra -fvariable-expansion-in-unroller -fvect-cost-model -fvpt -fweb -fwhole-program -fwpa -fuse-linker-plugin --param name=value -O -O0 -O1 -O2 -O3 -Os -Ofast -Og
Program Instrumentation Options
-p -pg -fprofile-arcs --coverage -ftest-coverage -fprofile-dir= path -fprofile-generate -fprofile-generate= path -fsanitize=style -fsanitize-recover -fsanitize-recover= style -fasan-shadow-offset= number -fsanitize-sections=s1 ,s2,... -fsanitize-undefined-trap-on-error -fbounds-check -fcheck-pointer-bounds -fchkp-check-incomplete-type -fchkp-first-field-has-own-bounds -fchkp-narrow-bounds -fchkp-narrow-to-innermost-array -fchkp-optimize -fchkp-use-fast-string-functions -fchkp-use-nochk-string-functions -fchkp-use-static-bounds -fchkp-use-static-const-bounds -fchkp-treat-zero-dynamic-size-as-infinite -fchkp-check-read -fchkp-check-read -fchkp-check-write -fchkp-store-bounds -fchkp-instrument-calls -fchkp-instrument-marked-only -fchkp-use-wrappers -fchkp-flexible-struct-trailing-arrays -fstack-protector -fstack-protector-all -fstack-protector-strong -fstack-protector-explicit -fstack-check -fstack-limit-register= reg -fstack-limit-symbol=sym -fno-stack-limit -fsplit-stack -fvtable-verify=[std|preinit|none] -fvtv-counts -fvtv-debug -finstrument-functions -finstrument-functions-exclude-function-list= sym,sym ,... -finstrument-functions-exclude-file-list= file,file ,...
Preprocessor Options
-Aquestion=answer -A-question[ =answer] -C -CC -Dmacro[ =defn] -dD -dI -dM -dN -dU -fdebug-cpp -fdirectives-only -fdollars-in-identifiers -fexec-charset= charset -fextended-identifiers -finput-charset= charset -fno-canonical-system-headers -fpch-deps -fpch-preprocess -fpreprocessed -ftabstop=width -ftrack-macro-expansion -fwide-exec-charset=charset -fworking-directory -H -imacros file -include file -M -MD -MF -MG -MM -MMD -MP -MQ -MT -no-integrated-cpp -P -pthread -remap -traditional -traditional-cpp -trigraphs -Umacro -undef -Wp, option -Xpreprocessor option
Assembler Options
-Wa,option -Xassembler option
Linker Options
object-file-name -fuse-ld=linker -l library -nostartfiles -nodefaultlibs -nostdlib -pie -pthread -rdynamic -s -static -static-libgcc -static-libstdc++ -static-libasan -static-libtsan -static-liblsan -static-libubsan -static-libmpx -static-libmpxwrappers -shared -shared-libgcc -symbolic -T script -Wl,option -Xlinker option -u symbol -z keyword
Directory Options
-Bprefix -Idir -I- -idirafter dir -imacros file -imultilib dir -iplugindir=dir -iprefix file -iquote dir -isysroot dir -isystem dir -iwithprefix dir -iwithprefixbefore dir -Ldir -no-canonical-prefixes --no-sysroot-suffix -nostdinc -nostdinc++ --sysroot=dir
Code Generation Options
-fcall-saved-reg -fcall-used-reg -ffixed-reg -fexceptions -fnon-call-exceptions -fdelete-dead-exceptions -funwind-tables -fasynchronous-unwind-tables -fno-gnu-unique -finhibit-size-directive -fno-common -fno-ident -fpcc-struct-return -fpic -fPIC -fpie -fPIE -fno-plt -fno-jump-tables -frecord-gcc-switches -freg-struct-return -fshort-enums -fshort-wchar -fverbose-asm -fpack-struct[= n] -fleading-underscore -ftls-model= model -fstack-reuse=reuse_level -ftrampolines -ftrapv -fwrapv -fvisibility=[default|internal|hidden|protected] -fstrict-volatile-bitfields -fsync-libcalls
Developer Options
-dletters -dumpspecs -dumpmachine -dumpversion -dumpfullversion -fchecking -fchecking=n -fdbg-cnt-list -fdbg-cnt=counter-value-list -fdisable-ipa- pass_name -fdisable-rtl-pass_name -fdisable-rtl-pass-name =range-list -fdisable-tree- pass_name -fdisable-tree-pass-name =range-list -fdump-noaddr -fdump-unnumbered -fdump-unnumbered-links -fdump-translation-unit[ -n] -fdump-class-hierarchy[ -n] -fdump-ipa-all -fdump-ipa-cgraph -fdump-ipa-inline -fdump-passes -fdump-rtl- pass -fdump-rtl-pass=filename -fdump-statistics -fdump-final-insns[=file] -fdump-tree-all -fdump-tree-switch -fdump-tree- switch-options -fdump-tree- switch-options=filename -fcompare-debug[ =opts] -fcompare-debug-second -fenable-kind-pass -fenable-kind-pass=range-list -fira-verbose=n -flto-report -flto-report-wpa -fmem-report-wpa -fmem-report -fpre-ipa-mem-report -fpost-ipa-mem-report -fopt-info -fopt-info-options[= file] -fprofile-report -frandom-seed=string -fsched-verbose= n -fsel-sched-verbose -fsel-sched-dump-cfg -fsel-sched-pipelining-verbose -fstats -fstack-usage -ftime-report -ftime-report-details -fvar-tracking-assignments-toggle -gtoggle -print-file-name=library -print-libgcc-file-name -print-multi-directory -print-multi-lib -print-multi-os-directory -print-prog-name=program -print-search-dirs -Q -print-sysroot -print-sysroot-headers-suffix -save-temps -save-temps=cwd -save-temps=obj -time[ =file]
Machine-Dependent Options
AArch64 Options -mabi=name -mbig-endian -mlittle-endian -mgeneral-regs-only -mcmodel=tiny -mcmodel=small -mcmodel=large -mstrict-align -momit-leaf-frame-pointer -mno-omit-leaf-frame-pointer -mtls-dialect=desc -mtls-dialect=traditional -mtls-size=size -mfix-cortex-a53-835769 -mno-fix-cortex-a53-835769 -mfix-cortex-a53-843419 -mno-fix-cortex-a53-843419 -mlow-precision-recip-sqrt -mno-low-precision-recip-sqrt -mlow-precision-sqrt -mno-low-precision-sqrt -mlow-precision-div -mno-low-precision-div -march=name -mcpu=name -mtune=name
 
Adapteva Epiphany Options -mhalf-reg-file -mprefer-short-insn-regs -mbranch-cost=num -mcmove -mnops= num -msoft-cmpsf -msplit-lohi -mpost-inc -mpost-modify -mstack-offset= num -mround-nearest -mlong-calls -mshort-calls -msmall16 -mfp-mode=mode -mvect-double -max-vect-align= num -msplit-vecmove-early -m1reg- reg
 
ARC Options -mbarrel-shifter -mcpu=cpu -mA6 -mARC600 -mA7 -mARC700 -mdpfp -mdpfp-compact -mdpfp-fast -mno-dpfp-lrsr -mea -mno-mpy -mmul32x16 -mmul64 -matomic -mnorm -mspfp -mspfp-compact -mspfp-fast -msimd -msoft-float -mswap -mcrc -mdsp-packa -mdvbf -mlock -mmac-d16 -mmac-24 -mrtsc -mswape -mtelephony -mxy -misize -mannotate-align -marclinux -marclinux_prof -mlong-calls -mmedium-calls -msdata -mvolatile-cache -mtp-regno= regno -malign-call -mauto-modify-reg -mbbit-peephole -mno-brcc -mcase-vector-pcrel -mcompact-casesi -mno-cond-exec -mearly-cbranchsi -mexpand-adddi -mindexed-loads -mlra -mlra-priority-none -mlra-priority-compact mlra-priority-noncompact -mno-millicode -mmixed-code -mq-class -mRcq -mRcw -msize-level= level -mtune=cpu -mmultcost= num -munalign-prob-threshold=probability -mmpy-option=multo -mdiv-rem -mcode-density -mll64 -mfpu= fpu
 
ARM Options -mapcs-frame -mno-apcs-frame -mabi=name -mapcs-stack-check -mno-apcs-stack-check -mapcs-reentrant -mno-apcs-reentrant -msched-prolog -mno-sched-prolog -mlittle-endian -mbig-endian -mfloat-abi= name -mfp16-format=name -mthumb-interwork -mno-thumb-interwork -mcpu=name -march= name -mfpu=name -mtune=name -mprint-tune-info -mstructure-size-boundary= n -mabort-on-noreturn -mlong-calls -mno-long-calls -msingle-pic-base -mno-single-pic-base -mpic-register=reg -mnop-fun-dllimport -mpoke-function-name -mthumb -marm -mtpcs-frame -mtpcs-leaf-frame -mcaller-super-interworking -mcallee-super-interworking -mtp= name -mtls-dialect=dialect -mword-relocations -mfix-cortex-m3-ldrd -munaligned-access -mneon-for-64bits -mslow-flash-data -masm-syntax-unified -mrestrict-it -mpure-code -mcmse
 
AVR Options -mmcu=mcu -mabsdata -maccumulate-args -mbranch-cost=cost -mcall-prologues -mint8 -mn_flash= size -mno-interrupts -mrelax -mrmw -mstrict-X -mtiny-stack -mfract-convert-truncate -nodevicelib -Waddr-space-convert -Wmisspelled-isr
 
Blackfin Options -mcpu=cpu[-sirevision] -msim -momit-leaf-frame-pointer -mno-omit-leaf-frame-pointer -mspecld-anomaly -mno-specld-anomaly -mcsync-anomaly -mno-csync-anomaly -mlow-64k -mno-low64k -mstack-check-l1 -mid-shared-library -mno-id-shared-library -mshared-library-id=n -mleaf-id-shared-library -mno-leaf-id-shared-library -msep-data -mno-sep-data -mlong-calls -mno-long-calls -mfast-fp -minline-plt -mmulticore -mcorea -mcoreb -msdram -micplb
 
C6X Options -mbig-endian -mlittle-endian -march=cpu -msim -msdata=sdata-type
 
CRIS Options -mcpu=cpu -march=cpu -mtune= cpu -mmax-stack-frame=n -melinux-stacksize= n -metrax4 -metrax100 -mpdebug -mcc-init -mno-side-effects -mstack-align -mdata-align -mconst-align -m32-bit -m16-bit -m8-bit -mno-prologue-epilogue -mno-gotplt -melf -maout -melinux -mlinux -sim -sim2 -mmul-bug-workaround -mno-mul-bug-workaround
 
CR16 Options -mmac -mcr16cplus -mcr16c -msim -mint32 -mbit-ops -mdata-model=model
 
Darwin Options -all_load -allowable_client -arch -arch_errors_fatal -arch_only -bind_at_load -bundle -bundle_loader -client_name -compatibility_version -current_version -dead_strip -dependency-file -dylib_file -dylinker_install_name -dynamic -dynamiclib -exported_symbols_list -filelist -flat_namespace -force_cpusubtype_ALL -force_flat_namespace -headerpad_max_install_names -iframework -image_base -init -install_name -keep_private_externs -multi_module -multiply_defined -multiply_defined_unused -noall_load -no_dead_strip_inits_and_terms -nofixprebinding -nomultidefs -noprebind -noseglinkedit -pagezero_size -prebind -prebind_all_twolevel_modules -private_bundle -read_only_relocs -sectalign -sectobjectsymbols -whyload -seg1addr -sectcreate -sectobjectsymbols -sectorder -segaddr -segs_read_only_addr -segs_read_write_addr -seg_addr_table -seg_addr_table_filename -seglinkedit -segprot -segs_read_only_addr -segs_read_write_addr -single_module -static -sub_library -sub_umbrella -twolevel_namespace -umbrella -undefined -unexported_symbols_list -weak_reference_mismatches -whatsloaded -F -gused -gfull -mmacosx-version-min= version -mkernel -mone-byte-bool
 
DEC Alpha Options -mno-fp-regs -msoft-float -mieee -mieee-with-inexact -mieee-conformant -mfp-trap-mode=mode -mfp-rounding-mode=mode -mtrap-precision=mode -mbuild-constants -mcpu=cpu-type -mtune=cpu-type -mbwx -mmax -mfix -mcix -mfloat-vax -mfloat-ieee -mexplicit-relocs -msmall-data -mlarge-data -msmall-text -mlarge-text -mmemory-latency= time
 
FR30 Options -msmall-model -mno-lsim
 
FT32 Options -msim -mlra -mnodiv
 
FRV Options -mgpr-32 -mgpr-64 -mfpr-32 -mfpr-64 -mhard-float -msoft-float -malloc-cc -mfixed-cc -mdword -mno-dword -mdouble -mno-double -mmedia -mno-media -mmuladd -mno-muladd -mfdpic -minline-plt -mgprel-ro -multilib-library-pic -mlinked-fp -mlong-calls -malign-labels -mlibrary-pic -macc-4 -macc-8 -mpack -mno-pack -mno-eflags -mcond-move -mno-cond-move -moptimize-membar -mno-optimize-membar -mscc -mno-scc -mcond-exec -mno-cond-exec -mvliw-branch -mno-vliw-branch -mmulti-cond-exec -mno-multi-cond-exec -mnested-cond-exec -mno-nested-cond-exec -mtomcat-stats -mTLS -mtls -mcpu=cpu
 
GNU/Linux Options -mglibc -muclibc -mmusl -mbionic -mandroid -tno-android-cc -tno-android-ld
 
H8/300 Options -mrelax -mh -ms -mn -mexr -mno-exr -mint32 -malign-300
 
HPPA Options -march=architecture-type -mcaller-copies -mdisable-fpregs -mdisable-indexing -mfast-indirect-calls -mgas -mgnu-ld -mhp-ld -mfixed-range=register-range -mjump-in-delay -mlinker-opt -mlong-calls -mlong-load-store -mno-disable-fpregs -mno-disable-indexing -mno-fast-indirect-calls -mno-gas -mno-jump-in-delay -mno-long-load-store -mno-portable-runtime -mno-soft-float -mno-space-regs -msoft-float -mpa-risc-1-0 -mpa-risc-1-1 -mpa-risc-2-0 -mportable-runtime -mschedule=cpu-type -mspace-regs -msio -mwsio -munix= unix-std -nolibdld -static -threads
 
IA-64 Options -mbig-endian -mlittle-endian -mgnu-as -mgnu-ld -mno-pic -mvolatile-asm-stop -mregister-names -msdata -mno-sdata -mconstant-gp -mauto-pic -mfused-madd -minline-float-divide-min-latency -minline-float-divide-max-throughput -mno-inline-float-divide -minline-int-divide-min-latency -minline-int-divide-max-throughput -mno-inline-int-divide -minline-sqrt-min-latency -minline-sqrt-max-throughput -mno-inline-sqrt -mdwarf2-asm -mearly-stop-bits -mfixed-range= register-range -mtls-size=tls-size -mtune=cpu-type -milp32 -mlp64 -msched-br-data-spec -msched-ar-data-spec -msched-control-spec -msched-br-in-data-spec -msched-ar-in-data-spec -msched-in-control-spec -msched-spec-ldc -msched-spec-control-ldc -msched-prefer-non-data-spec-insns -msched-prefer-non-control-spec-insns -msched-stop-bits-after-every-cycle -msched-count-spec-in-critical-path -msel-sched-dont-check-control-spec -msched-fp-mem-deps-zero-cost -msched-max-memory-insns-hard-limit -msched-max-memory-insns=max-insns
 
LM32 Options -mbarrel-shift-enabled -mdivide-enabled -mmultiply-enabled -msign-extend-enabled -muser-enabled
 
M32R/D Options -m32r2 -m32rx -m32r -mdebug -malign-loops -mno-align-loops -missue-rate=number -mbranch-cost=number -mmodel=code-size-model-type -msdata=sdata-type -mno-flush-func -mflush-func=name -mno-flush-trap -mflush-trap=number -G num
 
M32C Options -mcpu=cpu -msim -memregs=number
 
M680x0 Options -march=arch -mcpu=cpu -mtune= tune -m68000 -m68020 -m68020-40 -m68020-60 -m68030 -m68040 -m68060 -mcpu32 -m5200 -m5206e -m528x -m5307 -m5407 -mcfv4e -mbitfield -mno-bitfield -mc68000 -mc68020 -mnobitfield -mrtd -mno-rtd -mdiv -mno-div -mshort -mno-short -mhard-float -m68881 -msoft-float -mpcrel -malign-int -mstrict-align -msep-data -mno-sep-data -mshared-library-id=n -mid-shared-library -mno-id-shared-library -mxgot -mno-xgot -mlong-jump-table-offsets
 
MCore Options -mhardlit -mno-hardlit -mdiv -mno-div -mrelax-immediates -mno-relax-immediates -mwide-bitfields -mno-wide-bitfields -m4byte-functions -mno-4byte-functions -mcallgraph-data -mno-callgraph-data -mslow-bytes -mno-slow-bytes -mno-lsim -mlittle-endian -mbig-endian -m210 -m340 -mstack-increment
 
MeP Options -mabsdiff -mall-opts -maverage -mbased=n -mbitops -mc=n -mclip -mconfig=name -mcop -mcop32 -mcop64 -mivc2 -mdc -mdiv -meb -mel -mio-volatile -ml -mleadz -mm -mminmax -mmult -mno-opts -mrepeat -ms -msatur -msdram -msim -msimnovec -mtf -mtiny=n
 
MicroBlaze Options -msoft-float -mhard-float -msmall-divides -mcpu= cpu -mmemcpy -mxl-soft-mul -mxl-soft-div -mxl-barrel-shift -mxl-pattern-compare -mxl-stack-check -mxl-gp-opt -mno-clearbss -mxl-multiply-high -mxl-float-convert -mxl-float-sqrt -mbig-endian -mlittle-endian -mxl-reorder -mxl-mode- app-model
 
MIPS Options -EL -EB -march=arch -mtune=arch -mips1 -mips2 -mips3 -mips4 -mips32 -mips32r2 -mips32r3 -mips32r5 -mips32r6 -mips64 -mips64r2 -mips64r3 -mips64r5 -mips64r6 -mips16 -mno-mips16 -mflip-mips16 -minterlink-compressed -mno-interlink-compressed -minterlink-mips16 -mno-interlink-mips16 -mabi=abi -mabicalls -mno-abicalls -mshared -mno-shared -mplt -mno-plt -mxgot -mno-xgot -mgp32 -mgp64 -mfp32 -mfpxx -mfp64 -mhard-float -msoft-float -mno-float -msingle-float -mdouble-float -modd-spreg -mno-odd-spreg -mabs=mode -mnan=encoding -mdsp -mno-dsp -mdspr2 -mno-dspr2 -mmcu -mmno-mcu -meva -mno-eva -mvirt -mno-virt -mxpa -mno-xpa -mmicromips -mno-micromips -mmsa -mno-msa -mfpu=fpu-type -msmartmips -mno-smartmips -mpaired-single -mno-paired-single -mdmx -mno-mdmx -mips3d -mno-mips3d -mmt -mno-mt -mllsc -mno-llsc -mlong64 -mlong32 -msym32 -mno-sym32 -Gnum -mlocal-sdata -mno-local-sdata -mextern-sdata -mno-extern-sdata -mgpopt -mno-gopt -membedded-data -mno-embedded-data -muninit-const-in-rodata -mno-uninit-const-in-rodata -mcode-readable= setting -msplit-addresses -mno-split-addresses -mexplicit-relocs -mno-explicit-relocs -mcheck-zero-division -mno-check-zero-division -mdivide-traps -mdivide-breaks -mload-store-pairs -mno-load-store-pairs -mmemcpy -mno-memcpy -mlong-calls -mno-long-calls -mmad -mno-mad -mimadd -mno-imadd -mfused-madd -mno-fused-madd -nocpp -mfix-24k -mno-fix-24k -mfix-r4000 -mno-fix-r4000 -mfix-r4400 -mno-fix-r4400 -mfix-r10000 -mno-fix-r10000 -mfix-rm7000 -mno-fix-rm7000 -mfix-vr4120 -mno-fix-vr4120 -mfix-vr4130 -mno-fix-vr4130 -mfix-sb1 -mno-fix-sb1 -mflush-func=func -mno-flush-func -mbranch-cost=num -mbranch-likely -mno-branch-likely -mcompact-branches=policy -mfp-exceptions -mno-fp-exceptions -mvr4130-align -mno-vr4130-align -msynci -mno-synci -mlxc1-sxc1 -mno-lxc1-sxc1 -mmadd4 -mno-madd4 -mrelax-pic-calls -mno-relax-pic-calls -mmcount-ra-address -mframe-header-opt -mno-frame-header-opt
 
MMIX Options -mlibfuncs -mno-libfuncs -mepsilon -mno-epsilon -mabi=gnu -mabi=mmixware -mzero-extend -mknuthdiv -mtoplevel-symbols -melf -mbranch-predict -mno-branch-predict -mbase-addresses -mno-base-addresses -msingle-exit -mno-single-exit
 
MN10300 Options -mmult-bug -mno-mult-bug -mno-am33 -mam33 -mam33-2 -mam34 -mtune=cpu-type -mreturn-pointer-on-d0 -mno-crt0 -mrelax -mliw -msetlb
 
Moxie Options -meb -mel -mmul.x -mno-crt0
 
MSP430 Options -msim -masm-hex -mmcu= -mcpu= -mlarge -msmall -mrelax -mwarn-mcu -mcode-region= -mdata-region= -msilicon-errata= -msilicon-errata-warn= -mhwmult= -minrt
 
NDS32 Options -mbig-endian -mlittle-endian -mreduced-regs -mfull-regs -mcmov -mno-cmov -mperf-ext -mno-perf-ext -mv3push -mno-v3push -m16bit -mno-16bit -misr-vector-size= num -mcache-block-size=num -march=arch -mcmodel=code-model -mctor-dtor -mrelax
 
Nios II Options -G num -mgpopt=option -mgpopt -mno-gpopt -mel -meb -mno-bypass-cache -mbypass-cache -mno-cache-volatile -mcache-volatile -mno-fast-sw-div -mfast-sw-div -mhw-mul -mno-hw-mul -mhw-mulx -mno-hw-mulx -mno-hw-div -mhw-div -mcustom-insn=N -mno-custom-insn -mcustom-fpu-cfg=name -mhal -msmallc -msys-crt0=name -msys-lib=name -march=arch -mbmx -mno-bmx -mcdx -mno-cdx
 
Nvidia PTX Options -m32 -m64 -mmainkernel -moptimize
 
PDP-11 Options -mfpu -msoft-float -mac0 -mno-ac0 -m40 -m45 -m10 -mbcopy -mbcopy-builtin -mint32 -mno-int16 -mint16 -mno-int32 -mfloat32 -mno-float64 -mfloat64 -mno-float32 -mabshi -mno-abshi -mbranch-expensive -mbranch-cheap -munix-asm -mdec-asm
 
picoChip Options -mae=ae_type -mvliw-lookahead=N -msymbol-as-address -mno-inefficient-warnings
 
PowerPC Options See RS/6000 and PowerPC Options.
 
RISC-V Options -mbranch-cost=N-instruction -mmemcpy -mno-memcpy -mplt -mno-plt -mabi=ABI-string -mfdiv -mno-fdiv -mdiv -mno-div -march=ISA-string -mtune=processor-string -msmall-data-limit= N-bytes -msave-restore -mno-save-restore -mcmodel=code-model -mexplicit-relocs -mno-explicit-relocs
 
RL78 Options -msim -mmul=none -mmul=g13 -mmul=g14 -mallregs -mcpu=g10 -mcpu=g13 -mcpu=g14 -mg10 -mg13 -mg14 -m64bit-doubles -m32bit-doubles -msave-mduc-in-interrupts
 
RS/6000 and PowerPC Options -mcpu=cpu-type -mtune= cpu-type -mcmodel=code-model -mpowerpc64 -maltivec -mno-altivec -mpowerpc-gpopt -mno-powerpc-gpopt -mpowerpc-gfxopt -mno-powerpc-gfxopt -mmfcrf -mno-mfcrf -mpopcntb -mno-popcntb -mpopcntd -mno-popcntd -mfprnd -mno-fprnd -mcmpb -mno-cmpb -mmfpgpr -mno-mfpgpr -mhard-dfp -mno-hard-dfp -mfull-toc -mminimal-toc -mno-fp-in-toc -mno-sum-in-toc -m64 -m32 -mxl-compat -mno-xl-compat -mpe -malign-power -malign-natural -msoft-float -mhard-float -mmultiple -mno-multiple -msingle-float -mdouble-float -msimple-fpu -mstring -mno-string -mupdate -mno-update -mavoid-indexed-addresses -mno-avoid-indexed-addresses -mfused-madd -mno-fused-madd -mbit-align -mno-bit-align -mstrict-align -mno-strict-align -mrelocatable -mno-relocatable -mrelocatable-lib -mno-relocatable-lib -mtoc -mno-toc -mlittle -mlittle-endian -mbig -mbig-endian -mdynamic-no-pic -maltivec -mswdiv -msingle-pic-base -mprioritize-restricted-insns=priority -msched-costly-dep= dependence_type -minsert-sched-nops= scheme -mcall-sysv -mcall-netbsd -maix-struct-return -msvr4-struct-return -mabi=abi-type -msecure-plt -mbss-plt -mblock-move-inline-limit= num -misel -mno-isel -misel=yes -misel=no -mspe -mno-spe -mspe=yes -mspe=no -mpaired -mgen-cell-microcode -mwarn-cell-microcode -mvrsave -mno-vrsave -mmulhw -mno-mulhw -mdlmzb -mno-dlmzb -mfloat-gprs=yes -mfloat-gprs=no -mfloat-gprs=single -mfloat-gprs=double -mprototype -mno-prototype -msim -mmvme -mads -myellowknife -memb -msdata -msdata=opt -mvxworks -G num -mrecip -mrecip= opt -mno-recip -mrecip-precision -mno-recip-precision -mveclibabi=type -mfriz -mno-friz -mpointers-to-nested-functions -mno-pointers-to-nested-functions -msave-toc-indirect -mno-save-toc-indirect -mpower8-fusion -mno-mpower8-fusion -mpower8-vector -mno-power8-vector -mcrypto -mno-crypto -mhtm -mno-htm -mdirect-move -mno-direct-move -mquad-memory -mno-quad-memory -mquad-memory-atomic -mno-quad-memory-atomic -mcompat-align-parm -mno-compat-align-parm -mupper-regs-df -mno-upper-regs-df -mupper-regs-sf -mno-upper-regs-sf -mupper-regs-di -mno-upper-regs-di -mupper-regs -mno-upper-regs -mfloat128 -mno-float128 -mfloat128-hardware -mno-float128-hardware -mgnu-attribute -mno-gnu-attribute -mstack-protector-guard= guard -mstack-protector-guard-reg= reg -mstack-protector-guard-offset= offset -mlra -mno-lra
 
RX Options -m64bit-doubles -m32bit-doubles -fpu -nofpu -mcpu= -mbig-endian-data -mlittle-endian-data -msmall-data -msim -mno-sim -mas100-syntax -mno-as100-syntax -mrelax -mmax-constant-size= -mint-register= -mpid -mallow-string-insns -mno-allow-string-insns -mjsr -mno-warn-multiple-fast-interrupts -msave-acc-in-interrupts
 
S/390 and zSeries Options -mtune=cpu-type -march= cpu-type -mhard-float -msoft-float -mhard-dfp -mno-hard-dfp -mlong-double-64 -mlong-double-128 -mbackchain -mno-backchain -mpacked-stack -mno-packed-stack -msmall-exec -mno-small-exec -mmvcle -mno-mvcle -m64 -m31 -mdebug -mno-debug -mesa -mzarch -mhtm -mvx -mzvector -mtpf-trace -mno-tpf-trace -mfused-madd -mno-fused-madd -mwarn-framesize -mwarn-dynamicstack -mstack-size -mstack-guard -mhotpatch=halfwords ,halfwords
 
Score Options -meb -mel -mnhwloop -muls -mmac -mscore5 -mscore5u -mscore7 -mscore7d
 
SH Options -m1 -m2 -m2e -m2a-nofpu -m2a-single-only -m2a-single -m2a -m3 -m3e -m4-nofpu -m4-single-only -m4-single -m4 -m4a-nofpu -m4a-single-only -m4a-single -m4a -m4al -mb -ml -mdalign -mrelax -mbigtable -mfmovd -mrenesas -mno-renesas -mnomacsave -mieee -mno-ieee -mbitops -misize -minline-ic_invalidate -mpadstruct -mprefergot -musermode -multcost= number -mdiv=strategy -mdivsi3_libfunc= name -mfixed-range=register-range -maccumulate-outgoing-args -matomic-model=atomic-model -mbranch-cost=num -mzdcbranch -mno-zdcbranch -mcbranch-force-delay-slot -mfused-madd -mno-fused-madd -mfsca -mno-fsca -mfsrra -mno-fsrra -mpretend-cmove -mtas
 
Solaris 2 Options -mclear-hwcap -mno-clear-hwcap -mimpure-text -mno-impure-text -pthreads
 
SPARC Options -mcpu=cpu-type -mtune=cpu-type -mcmodel=code-model -mmemory-model= mem-model -m32 -m64 -mapp-regs -mno-app-regs -mfaster-structs -mno-faster-structs -mflat -mno-flat -mfpu -mno-fpu -mhard-float -msoft-float -mhard-quad-float -msoft-quad-float -mstack-bias -mno-stack-bias -mstd-struct-return -mno-std-struct-return -munaligned-doubles -mno-unaligned-doubles -muser-mode -mno-user-mode -mv8plus -mno-v8plus -mvis -mno-vis -mvis2 -mno-vis2 -mvis3 -mno-vis3 -mvis4 -mno-vis4 -mvis4b -mno-vis4b -mcbcond -mno-cbcond -mfmaf -mno-fmaf -mfsmuld -mno-fsmuld -mpopc -mno-popc -msubxc -mno-subxc -mfix-at697f -mfix-ut699 -mfix-ut700 -mfix-gr712rc -mlra -mno-lra
 
SPU Options -mwarn-reloc -merror-reloc -msafe-dma -munsafe-dma -mbranch-hints -msmall-mem -mlarge-mem -mstdmain -mfixed-range=register-range -mea32 -mea64 -maddress-space-conversion -mno-address-space-conversion -mcache-size=cache-size -matomic-updates -mno-atomic-updates
 
System V Options -Qy -Qn -YP,paths -Ym,dir
 
TILE-Gx Options -mcpu=CPU -m32 -m64 -mbig-endian -mlittle-endian -mcmodel=code-model
 
TILEPro Options -mcpu=cpu -m32
 
V850 Options -mlong-calls -mno-long-calls -mep -mno-ep -mprolog-function -mno-prolog-function -mspace -mtda=n -msda=n -mzda=n -mapp-regs -mno-app-regs -mdisable-callt -mno-disable-callt -mv850e2v3 -mv850e2 -mv850e1 -mv850es -mv850e -mv850 -mv850e3v5 -mloop -mrelax -mlong-jumps -msoft-float -mhard-float -mgcc-abi -mrh850-abi -mbig-switch
 
VAX Options -mg -mgnu -munix
 
Visium Options -mdebug -msim -mfpu -mno-fpu -mhard-float -msoft-float -mcpu=cpu-type -mtune=cpu-type -msv-mode -muser-mode
 
VMS Options -mvms-return-codes -mdebug-main=prefix -mmalloc64 -mpointer-size=size
 
VxWorks Options -mrtp -non-static -Bstatic -Bdynamic -Xbind-lazy -Xbind-now
 
x86 Options -mtune=cpu-type -march=cpu-type -mtune-ctrl=feature-list -mdump-tune-features -mno-default -mfpmath=unit -masm= dialect -mno-fancy-math-387 -mno-fp-ret-in-387 -m80387 -mhard-float -msoft-float -mno-wide-multiply -mrtd -malign-double -mpreferred-stack-boundary= num -mincoming-stack-boundary= num -mcld -mcx16 -msahf -mmovbe -mcrc32 -mrecip -mrecip=opt -mvzeroupper -mprefer-avx128 -mmmx -msse -msse2 -msse3 -mssse3 -msse4.1 -msse4.2 -msse4 -mavx -mavx2 -mavx512f -mavx512pf -mavx512er -mavx512cd -mavx512vl -mavx512bw -mavx512dq -mavx512ifma -mavx512vbmi -msha -maes -mpclmul -mfsgsbase -mrdrnd -mf16c -mfma -mprefetchwt1 -mclflushopt -mxsavec -mxsaves -msse4a -m3dnow -m3dnowa -mpopcnt -mabm -mbmi -mtbm -mfma4 -mxop -mlzcnt -mbmi2 -mfxsr -mxsave -mxsaveopt -mrtm -mlwp -mmpx -mmwaitx -mclzero -mpku -mthreads -mms-bitfields -mno-align-stringops -minline-all-stringops -minline-stringops-dynamically -mstringop-strategy= alg -mmemcpy-strategy= strategy -mmemset-strategy=strategy -mpush-args -maccumulate-outgoing-args -m128bit-long-double -m96bit-long-double -mlong-double-64 -mlong-double-80 -mlong-double-128 -mregparm=num -msseregparm -mveclibabi=type -mvect8-ret-in-mem -mpc32 -mpc64 -mpc80 -mstackrealign -momit-leaf-frame-pointer -mno-red-zone -mno-tls-direct-seg-refs -mcmodel=code-model -mabi= name -maddress-mode=mode -m32 -m64 -mx32 -m16 -miamcu -mlarge-data-threshold= num -msse2avx -mfentry -mrecord-mcount -mnop-mcount -m8bit-idiv -mavx256-split-unaligned-load -mavx256-split-unaligned-store -malign-data= type -mstack-protector-guard=guard -mmitigate-rop -mgeneral-regs-only
 
x86 Windows Options -mconsole -mcygwin -mno-cygwin -mdll -mnop-fun-dllimport -mthread -municode -mwin32 -mwindows -fno-set-stack-executable
 
Xstormy16 Options -msim
 
Xtensa Options -mconst16 -mno-const16 -mfused-madd -mno-fused-madd -mforce-no-pic -mserialize-volatile -mno-serialize-volatile -mtext-section-literals -mno-text-section-literals -mauto-litpools -mno-auto-litpools -mtarget-align -mno-target-align -mlongcalls -mno-longcalls
 
zSeries Options See S/390 and zSeries Options.

Options Controlling the Kind of Output

Compilation can involve up to four stages: preprocessing, compilation proper, assembly and linking, always in that order. GCC is capable of preprocessing and compiling several files either into several assembler input files, or into one assembler input file; then each assembler input file produces an object file, and linking combines all the object files (those newly compiled, and those specified as input) into an executable file.
For any given input file, the file name suffix determines what kind of compilation is done:
file.c
C source code that must be preprocessed.
file.i
C source code that should not be preprocessed.
file.ii
C++ source code that should not be preprocessed.
file.m
Objective-C source code. Note that you must link with the libobjc library to make an Objective-C program work.
file.mi
Objective-C source code that should not be preprocessed.
file.mm
file.M
Objective-C++ source code. Note that you must link with the libobjc library to make an Objective-C++ program work. Note that .M refers to a literal capital M.
file.mii
Objective-C++ source code that should not be preprocessed.
file.h
C, C++, Objective-C or Objective-C++ header file to be turned into a precompiled header (default), or C, C++ header file to be turned into an Ada spec (via the -fdump-ada-spec switch).
file.cc
file.cp
file.cxx
file.cpp
file.CPP
file.c++
file.C
C++ source code that must be preprocessed. Note that in .cxx, the last two letters must both be literally x. Likewise, .C refers to a literal capital C.
file.mm
file.M
Objective-C++ source code that must be preprocessed.
file.mii
Objective-C++ source code that should not be preprocessed.
file.hh
file.H
file.hp
file.hxx
file.hpp
file.HPP
file.h++
file.tcc
C++ header file to be turned into a precompiled header or Ada spec.
file.f
file.for
file.ftn
Fixed form Fortran source code that should not be preprocessed.
file.F
file.FOR
file.fpp
file.FPP
file.FTN
Fixed form Fortran source code that must be preprocessed (with the traditional preprocessor).
file.f90
file.f95
file.f03
file.f08
Free form Fortran source code that should not be preprocessed.
file.F90
file.F95
file.F03
file.F08
Free form Fortran source code that must be preprocessed (with the traditional preprocessor).
file.go
Go source code.
file.brig
BRIG files (binary representation of HSAIL).
file.ads
Ada source code file that contains a library unit declaration (a declaration of a package, subprogram, or generic, or a generic instantiation), or a library unit renaming declaration (a package, generic, or subprogram renaming declaration). Such files are also called specs.
file.adb
Ada source code file containing a library unit body (a subprogram or package body). Such files are also called bodies.
file.s
Assembler code.
file.S
file.sx
Assembler code that must be preprocessed.
other
An object file to be fed straight into linking. Any file name with no recognized suffix is treated this way.
You can specify the input language explicitly with the -x option:
-x language
Specify explicitly the language for the following input files (rather than letting the compiler choose a default based on the file name suffix). This option applies to all following input files until the next -x option. Possible values for language are:
 
        c  c-header  cpp-output
        c++  c++-header  c++-cpp-output
        objective-c  objective-c-header  objective-c-cpp-output
        objective-c++ objective-c++-header objective-c++-cpp-output
        assembler  assembler-with-cpp
        ada
        f77  f77-cpp-input f95  f95-cpp-input
        go
        brig
    
-x none
Turn off any specification of a language, so that subsequent files are handled according to their file name suffixes (as they are if -x has not been used at all).
If you only want some of the stages of compilation, you can use -x (or filename suffixes) to tell gcc where to start, and one of the options -c, -S, or -E to say where gcc is to stop. Note that some combinations (for example, -x cpp-output -E) instruct gcc to do nothing at all.
-c
Compile or assemble the source files, but do not link. The linking stage simply is not done. The ultimate output is in the form of an object file for each source file.
 
By default, the object file name for a source file is made by replacing the suffix .c, .i, .s, etc., with .o.
 
Unrecognized input files, not requiring compilation or assembly, are ignored.
-S
Stop after the stage of compilation proper; do not assemble. The output is in the form of an assembler code file for each non-assembler input file specified.
 
By default, the assembler file name for a source file is made by replacing the suffix .c, .i, etc., with .s.
 
Input files that don't require compilation are ignored.
-E
Stop after the preprocessing stage; do not run the compiler proper. The output is in the form of preprocessed source code, which is sent to the standard output.
 
Input files that don't require preprocessing are ignored.
-o file
Place output in file file. This applies to whatever sort of output is being produced, whether it be an executable file, an object file, an assembler file or preprocessed C code.
 
If -o is not specified, the default is to put an executable file in a.out, the object file for source.suffix in source.o, its assembler file in source.s, a precompiled header file in source .suffix.gch, and all preprocessed C source on standard output.
-v
Print (on standard error output) the commands executed to run the stages of compilation. Also print the version number of the compiler driver program and of the preprocessor and the compiler proper.
-###
Like -v except the commands are not executed and arguments are quoted unless they contain only alphanumeric characters or "./-_". This is useful for shell scripts to capture the driver-generated command lines.
--help
Print (on the standard output) a description of the command-line options understood by gcc. If the -v option is also specified then --help is also passed on to the various processes invoked by gcc, so that they can display the command-line options they accept. If the -Wextra option has also been specified (prior to the --help option), then command-line options that have no documentation associated with them are also displayed.
--target-help
Print (on the standard output) a description of target-specific command-line options for each tool. For some targets extra target-specific information may also be printed.
--help={class|[^]qualifier}[,...]
Print (on the standard output) a description of the command-line options understood by the compiler that fit into all specified classes and qualifiers. These are the supported classes:
optimizers
Display all of the optimization options supported by the compiler.
warnings
Display all of the options controlling warning messages produced by the compiler.
target
Display target-specific options. Unlike the --target-help option however, target-specific options of the linker and assembler are not displayed. This is because those tools do not currently support the extended --help= syntax.
params
Display the values recognized by the --param option.
language
Display the options supported for language, where language is the name of one of the languages supported in this version of GCC.
common
Display the options that are common to all languages.
 
These are the supported qualifiers:
undocumented
Display only those options that are undocumented.
joined
Display options taking an argument that appears after an equal sign in the same continuous piece of text, such as: --help=target.
separate
Display options taking an argument that appears as a separate word following the original option, such as: -o output-file.
 
Thus for example to display all the undocumented target-specific switches supported by the compiler, use:
 
        --help=target,undocumented
 
The sense of a qualifier can be inverted by prefixing it with the ^ character, so for example to display all binary warning options (i.e., ones that are either on or off and that do not take an argument) that have a description, use:
 
        --help=warnings,^joined,^undocumented
 
The argument to --help= should not consist solely of inverted qualifiers.
 
Combining several classes is possible, although this usually restricts the output so much that there is nothing to display. One case where it does work, however, is when one of the classes is target. For example, to display all the target-specific optimization options, use:
 
        --help=target,optimizers
 
The --help= option can be repeated on the command line. Each successive use displays its requested class of options, skipping those that have already been displayed.
 
If the -Q option appears on the command line before the --help= option, then the descriptive text displayed by --help= is changed. Instead of describing the displayed options, an indication is given as to whether the option is enabled, disabled or set to a specific value (assuming that the compiler knows this at the point where the --help= option is used).
 
Here is a truncated example from the ARM port of gcc:
 
          % gcc -Q -mabi=2 --help=target -c
          The following options are target specific:
          -mabi=                                2
          -mabort-on-noreturn                   [disabled]
          -mapcs                                [disabled]
 
The output is sensitive to the effects of previous command-line options, so for example it is possible to find out which optimizations are enabled at -O2 by using:
 
        -Q -O2 --help=optimizers
 
Alternatively you can discover which binary optimizations are enabled by -O3 by using:
 
        gcc -c -Q -O3 --help=optimizers > /tmp/O3-opts
        gcc -c -Q -O2 --help=optimizers > /tmp/O2-opts
        diff /tmp/O2-opts /tmp/O3-opts | grep enabled
--version
Display the version number and copyrights of the invoked GCC.
-pass-exit-codes
Normally the gcc program exits with the code of 1 if any phase of the compiler returns a non-success return code. If you specify -pass-exit-codes, the gcc program instead returns with the numerically highest error produced by any phase returning an error indication. The C, C++, and Fortran front ends return 4 if an internal compiler error is encountered.
-pipe
Use pipes rather than temporary files for communication between the various stages of compilation. This fails to work on some systems where the assembler is unable to read from a pipe; but the GNU assembler has no trouble.
-specs=file
Process file after the compiler reads in the standard specs file, in order to override the defaults which the gcc driver program uses when determining what switches to pass to cc1, cc1plus, as, ld, etc. More than one -specs= file can be specified on the command line, and they are processed in order, from left to right.
-wrapper
Invoke all subcommands under a wrapper program. The name of the wrapper program and its parameters are passed as a comma separated list.
 
        gcc -c t.c -wrapper gdb,--args
    
 
This invokes all subprograms of gcc under gdb --args, thus the invocation of cc1 is gdb --args cc1 ....
-fplugin=name.so
Load the plugin code in file name.so, assumed to be a shared object to be dlopen'd by the compiler. The base name of the shared object file is used to identify the plugin for the purposes of argument parsing (See -fplugin-arg-name-key= value below). Each plugin should define the callback functions specified in the Plugins API.
-fplugin-arg-name-key=value
Define an argument called key with a value of value for the plugin called name.
-fdump-ada-spec[-slim]
For C and C++ source and include files, generate corresponding Ada specs.
-fada-spec-parent=unit
In conjunction with -fdump-ada-spec[-slim] above, generate Ada specs as child units of parent unit.
-fdump-go-spec=file
For input files in any language, generate corresponding Go declarations in file. This generates Go "const", "type", "var", and "func" declarations which may be a useful way to start writing a Go interface to code written in some other language.
@file
Read command-line options from file. The options read are inserted in place of the original @ file option. If file does not exist, or cannot be read, then the option will be treated literally, and not removed.
 
Options in file are separated by whitespace. A whitespace character may be included in an option by surrounding the entire option in either single or double quotes. Any character (including a backslash) may be included by prefixing the character to be included with a backslash. The file may itself contain additional @ file options; any such options will be processed recursively.

Compiling C++ Programs

C++ source files conventionally use one of the suffixes .C, .cc, .cpp, .CPP, .c++, .cp, or .cxx; C++ header files often use .hh, .hpp, .H, or (for shared template code) .tcc; and preprocessed C++ files use the suffix .ii. GCC recognizes files with these names and compiles them as C++ programs even if you call the compiler the same way as for compiling C programs (usually with the name gcc).
However, the use of gcc does not add the C++ library. g++ is a program that calls GCC and automatically specifies linking against the C++ library. It treats .c, .h and .i files as C++ source files instead of C source files unless -x is used. This program is also useful when precompiling a C header file with a .h extension for use in C++ compilations. On many systems, g++ is also installed with the name c++.
When you compile C++ programs, you may specify many of the same command-line options that you use for compiling programs in any language; or command-line options meaningful for C and related languages; or options that are meaningful only for C++ programs.

Options Controlling C Dialect

The following options control the dialect of C (or languages derived from C, such as C++, Objective-C and Objective-C++) that the compiler accepts:
-ansi
In C mode, this is equivalent to -std=c90. In C++ mode, it is equivalent to -std=c++98.
 
This turns off certain features of GCC that are incompatible with ISO C90 (when compiling C code), or of standard C++ (when compiling C++ code), such as the "asm" and "typeof" keywords, and predefined macros such as "unix" and "vax" that identify the type of system you are using. It also enables the undesirable and rarely used ISO trigraph feature. For the C compiler, it disables recognition of C++ style // comments as well as the "inline" keyword.
 
The alternate keywords "__asm__", "__extension__", "__inline__" and "__typeof__" continue to work despite -ansi. You would not want to use them in an ISO C program, of course, but it is useful to put them in header files that might be included in compilations done with -ansi. Alternate predefined macros such as "__unix__" and "__vax__" are also available, with or without -ansi.
 
The -ansi option does not cause non-ISO programs to be rejected gratuitously. For that, -Wpedantic is required in addition to -ansi.
 
The macro "__STRICT_ANSI__" is predefined when the -ansi option is used. Some header files may notice this macro and refrain from declaring certain functions or defining certain macros that the ISO standard doesn't call for; this is to avoid interfering with any programs that might use these names for other things.
 
Functions that are normally built in but do not have semantics defined by ISO C (such as "alloca" and "ffs") are not built-in functions when -ansi is used.
-std=
Determine the language standard. This option is currently only supported when compiling C or C++.
 
The compiler can accept several base standards, such as c90 or c++98, and GNU dialects of those standards, such as gnu90 or gnu++98. When a base standard is specified, the compiler accepts all programs following that standard plus those using GNU extensions that do not contradict it. For example, -std=c90 turns off certain features of GCC that are incompatible with ISO C90, such as the "asm" and "typeof" keywords, but not other GNU extensions that do not have a meaning in ISO C90, such as omitting the middle term of a "?:" expression. On the other hand, when a GNU dialect of a standard is specified, all features supported by the compiler are enabled, even when those features change the meaning of the base standard. As a result, some strict-conforming programs may be rejected. The particular standard is used by -Wpedantic to identify which features are GNU extensions given that version of the standard. For example -std=gnu90 -Wpedantic warns about C++ style // comments, while -std=gnu99 -Wpedantic does not.
 
A value for this option must be provided; possible values are
c90
c89
iso9899:1990
Support all ISO C90 programs (certain GNU extensions that conflict with ISO C90 are disabled). Same as -ansi for C code.
iso9899:199409
ISO C90 as modified in amendment 1.
c99
c9x
iso9899:1999
iso9899:199x
ISO C99. This standard is substantially completely supported, modulo bugs and floating-point issues (mainly but not entirely relating to optional C99 features from Annexes F and G). See < http://gcc.gnu.org/c99status.html> for more information. The names c9x and iso9899:199x are deprecated.
c11
c1x
iso9899:2011
ISO C11, the 2011 revision of the ISO C standard. This standard is substantially completely supported, modulo bugs, floating-point issues (mainly but not entirely relating to optional C11 features from Annexes F and G) and the optional Annexes K (Bounds-checking interfaces) and L (Analyzability). The name c1x is deprecated.
gnu90
gnu89
GNU dialect of ISO C90 (including some C99 features).
gnu99
gnu9x
GNU dialect of ISO C99. The name gnu9x is deprecated.
gnu11
gnu1x
GNU dialect of ISO C11. This is the default for C code. The name gnu1x is deprecated.
c++98
c++03
The 1998 ISO C++ standard plus the 2003 technical corrigendum and some additional defect reports. Same as -ansi for C++ code.
gnu++98
gnu++03
GNU dialect of -std=c++98.
c++11
c++0x
The 2011 ISO C++ standard plus amendments. The name c++0x is deprecated.
gnu++11
gnu++0x
GNU dialect of -std=c++11. The name gnu++0x is deprecated.
c++14
c++1y
The 2014 ISO C++ standard plus amendments. The name c++1y is deprecated.
gnu++14
gnu++1y
GNU dialect of -std=c++14. This is the default for C++ code. The name gnu++1y is deprecated.
c++1z
The next revision of the ISO C++ standard, tentatively planned for 2017. Support is highly experimental, and will almost certainly change in incompatible ways in future releases.
gnu++1z
GNU dialect of -std=c++1z. Support is highly experimental, and will almost certainly change in incompatible ways in future releases.
-fgnu89-inline
The option -fgnu89-inline tells GCC to use the traditional GNU semantics for "inline" functions when in C99 mode.
 
Using this option is roughly equivalent to adding the "gnu_inline" function attribute to all inline functions.
 
The option -fno-gnu89-inline explicitly tells GCC to use the C99 semantics for "inline" when in C99 or gnu99 mode (i.e., it specifies the default behavior). This option is not supported in -std=c90 or -std=gnu90 mode.
 
The preprocessor macros "__GNUC_GNU_INLINE__" and "__GNUC_STDC_INLINE__" may be used to check which semantics are in effect for "inline" functions.
-fpermitted-flt-eval-methods=style
ISO/IEC TS 18661-3 defines new permissible values for "FLT_EVAL_METHOD" that indicate that operations and constants with a semantic type that is an interchange or extended format should be evaluated to the precision and range of that type. These new values are a superset of those permitted under C99/C11, which does not specify the meaning of other positive values of "FLT_EVAL_METHOD". As such, code conforming to C11 may not have been written expecting the possibility of the new values.
 
-fpermitted-flt-eval-methods specifies whether the compiler should allow only the values of "FLT_EVAL_METHOD" specified in C99/C11, or the extended set of values specified in ISO/IEC TS 18661-3.
 
style is either "c11" or "ts-18661-3" as appropriate.
 
The default when in a standards compliant mode ( -std=c11 or similar) is -fpermitted-flt-eval-methods=c11. The default when in a GNU dialect ( -std=gnu11 or similar) is -fpermitted-flt-eval-methods=ts-18661-3.
-aux-info filename
Output to the given filename prototyped declarations for all functions declared and/or defined in a translation unit, including those in header files. This option is silently ignored in any language other than C.
 
Besides declarations, the file indicates, in comments, the origin of each declaration (source file and line), whether the declaration was implicit, prototyped or unprototyped ( I, N for new or O for old, respectively, in the first character after the line number and the colon), and whether it came from a declaration or a definition ( C or F, respectively, in the following character). In the case of function definitions, a K&R-style list of arguments followed by their declarations is also provided, inside comments, after the declaration.
-fallow-parameterless-variadic-functions
Accept variadic functions without named parameters.
 
Although it is possible to define such a function, this is not very useful as it is not possible to read the arguments. This is only supported for C as this construct is allowed by C++.
-fno-asm
Do not recognize "asm", "inline" or "typeof" as a keyword, so that code can use these words as identifiers. You can use the keywords "__asm__", "__inline__" and "__typeof__" instead. -ansi implies -fno-asm.
 
In C++, this switch only affects the "typeof" keyword, since "asm" and "inline" are standard keywords. You may want to use the -fno-gnu-keywords flag instead, which has the same effect. In C99 mode ( -std=c99 or -std=gnu99), this switch only affects the "asm" and "typeof" keywords, since "inline" is a standard keyword in ISO C99.
-fno-builtin
-fno-builtin-function
Don't recognize built-in functions that do not begin with __builtin_ as prefix.
 
GCC normally generates special code to handle certain built-in functions more efficiently; for instance, calls to "alloca" may become single instructions which adjust the stack directly, and calls to "memcpy" may become inline copy loops. The resulting code is often both smaller and faster, but since the function calls no longer appear as such, you cannot set a breakpoint on those calls, nor can you change the behavior of the functions by linking with a different library. In addition, when a function is recognized as a built-in function, GCC may use information about that function to warn about problems with calls to that function, or to generate more efficient code, even if the resulting code still contains calls to that function. For example, warnings are given with -Wformat for bad calls to "printf" when "printf" is built in and "strlen" is known not to modify global memory.
 
With the -fno-builtin-function option only the built-in function function is disabled. function must not begin with __builtin_. If a function is named that is not built-in in this version of GCC, this option is ignored. There is no corresponding -fbuiltin- function option; if you wish to enable built-in functions selectively when using -fno-builtin or -ffreestanding, you may define macros such as:
 
        #define abs(n)          __builtin_abs ((n))
        #define strcpy(d, s)    __builtin_strcpy ((d), (s))
    
-fgimple
Enable parsing of function definitions marked with "__GIMPLE". This is an experimental feature that allows unit testing of GIMPLE passes.
-fhosted
Assert that compilation targets a hosted environment. This implies -fbuiltin. A hosted environment is one in which the entire standard library is available, and in which "main" has a return type of "int". Examples are nearly everything except a kernel. This is equivalent to -fno-freestanding.
-ffreestanding
Assert that compilation targets a freestanding environment. This implies -fno-builtin. A freestanding environment is one in which the standard library may not exist, and program startup may not necessarily be at "main". The most obvious example is an OS kernel. This is equivalent to -fno-hosted.
-fopenacc
Enable handling of OpenACC directives "#pragma acc" in C/C++ and "!$acc" in Fortran. When -fopenacc is specified, the compiler generates accelerated code according to the OpenACC Application Programming Interface v2.0 < http://www.openacc.org/>. This option implies -pthread, and thus is only supported on targets that have support for -pthread.
-fopenacc-dim=geom
Specify default compute dimensions for parallel offload regions that do not explicitly specify. The geom value is a triple of ':'-separated sizes, in order 'gang', 'worker' and, 'vector'. A size can be omitted, to use a target-specific default value.
-fopenmp
Enable handling of OpenMP directives "#pragma omp" in C/C++ and "!$omp" in Fortran. When -fopenmp is specified, the compiler generates parallel code according to the OpenMP Application Program Interface v4.5 < http://www.openmp.org/>. This option implies -pthread, and thus is only supported on targets that have support for -pthread. -fopenmp implies -fopenmp-simd.
-fopenmp-simd
Enable handling of OpenMP's SIMD directives with "#pragma omp" in C/C++ and "!$omp" in Fortran. Other OpenMP directives are ignored.
-fcilkplus
Enable the usage of Cilk Plus language extension features for C/C++. When the option -fcilkplus is specified, enable the usage of the Cilk Plus Language extension features for C/C++. The present implementation follows ABI version 1.2. This is an experimental feature that is only partially complete, and whose interface may change in future versions of GCC as the official specification changes. Currently, all features but "_Cilk_for" have been implemented.
-fgnu-tm
When the option -fgnu-tm is specified, the compiler generates code for the Linux variant of Intel's current Transactional Memory ABI specification document (Revision 1.1, May 6 2009). This is an experimental feature whose interface may change in future versions of GCC, as the official specification changes. Please note that not all architectures are supported for this feature.
 
For more information on GCC's support for transactional memory,
 
Note that the transactional memory feature is not supported with non-call exceptions ( -fnon-call-exceptions).
-fms-extensions
Accept some non-standard constructs used in Microsoft header files.
 
In C++ code, this allows member names in structures to be similar to previous types declarations.
 
        typedef int UOW;
        struct ABC {
          UOW UOW;
        };
    
 
Some cases of unnamed fields in structures and unions are only accepted with this option.
 
Note that this option is off for all targets but x86 targets using ms-abi.
-fplan9-extensions
Accept some non-standard constructs used in Plan 9 code.
 
This enables -fms-extensions, permits passing pointers to structures with anonymous fields to functions that expect pointers to elements of the type of the field, and permits referring to anonymous fields declared using a typedef. This is only supported for C, not C++.
-fcond-mismatch
Allow conditional expressions with mismatched types in the second and third arguments. The value of such an expression is void. This option is not supported for C++.
-flax-vector-conversions
Allow implicit conversions between vectors with differing numbers of elements and/or incompatible element types. This option should not be used for new code.
-funsigned-char
Let the type "char" be unsigned, like "unsigned char".
 
Each kind of machine has a default for what "char" should be. It is either like "unsigned char" by default or like "signed char" by default.
 
Ideally, a portable program should always use "signed char" or "unsigned char" when it depends on the signedness of an object. But many programs have been written to use plain "char" and expect it to be signed, or expect it to be unsigned, depending on the machines they were written for. This option, and its inverse, let you make such a program work with the opposite default.
 
The type "char" is always a distinct type from each of "signed char" or "unsigned char", even though its behavior is always just like one of those two.
-fsigned-char
Let the type "char" be signed, like "signed char".
 
Note that this is equivalent to -fno-unsigned-char, which is the negative form of -funsigned-char. Likewise, the option -fno-signed-char is equivalent to -funsigned-char.
-fsigned-bitfields
-funsigned-bitfields
-fno-signed-bitfields
-fno-unsigned-bitfields
These options control whether a bit-field is signed or unsigned, when the declaration does not use either "signed" or "unsigned". By default, such a bit-field is signed, because this is consistent: the basic integer types such as "int" are signed types.
-fsso-struct=endianness
Set the default scalar storage order of structures and unions to the specified endianness. The accepted values are big-endian, little-endian and native for the native endianness of the target (the default). This option is not supported for C++.
 
Warning: the -fsso-struct switch causes GCC to generate code that is not binary compatible with code generated without it if the specified endianness is not the native endianness of the target.

Options Controlling C++ Dialect

This section describes the command-line options that are only meaningful for C++ programs. You can also use most of the GNU compiler options regardless of what language your program is in. For example, you might compile a file firstClass.C like this:
        g++ -g -fstrict-enums -O -c firstClass.C
In this example, only -fstrict-enums is an option meant only for C++ programs; you can use the other options with any language supported by GCC.
Some options for compiling C programs, such as -std, are also relevant for C++ programs.
Here is a list of options that are only for compiling C++ programs:
-fabi-version=n
Use version n of the C++ ABI. The default is version 0.
 
Version 0 refers to the version conforming most closely to the C++ ABI specification. Therefore, the ABI obtained using version 0 will change in different versions of G++ as ABI bugs are fixed.
 
Version 1 is the version of the C++ ABI that first appeared in G++ 3.2.
 
Version 2 is the version of the C++ ABI that first appeared in G++ 3.4, and was the default through G++ 4.9.
 
Version 3 corrects an error in mangling a constant address as a template argument.
 
Version 4, which first appeared in G++ 4.5, implements a standard mangling for vector types.
 
Version 5, which first appeared in G++ 4.6, corrects the mangling of attribute const/volatile on function pointer types, decltype of a plain decl, and use of a function parameter in the declaration of another parameter.
 
Version 6, which first appeared in G++ 4.7, corrects the promotion behavior of C++11 scoped enums and the mangling of template argument packs, const/static_cast, prefix ++ and --, and a class scope function used as a template argument.
 
Version 7, which first appeared in G++ 4.8, that treats nullptr_t as a builtin type and corrects the mangling of lambdas in default argument scope.
 
Version 8, which first appeared in G++ 4.9, corrects the substitution behavior of function types with function-cv-qualifiers.
 
Version 9, which first appeared in G++ 5.2, corrects the alignment of "nullptr_t".
 
Version 10, which first appeared in G++ 6.1, adds mangling of attributes that affect type identity, such as ia32 calling convention attributes (e.g. stdcall).
 
Version 11, which first appeared in G++ 7, corrects the mangling of sizeof... expressions and operator names. For multiple entities with the same name within a function, that are declared in different scopes, the mangling now changes starting with the twelfth occurrence. It also implies -fnew-inheriting-ctors.
 
See also -Wabi.
-fabi-compat-version=n
On targets that support strong aliases, G++ works around mangling changes by creating an alias with the correct mangled name when defining a symbol with an incorrect mangled name. This switch specifies which ABI version to use for the alias.
 
With -fabi-version=0 (the default), this defaults to 8 (GCC 5 compatibility). If another ABI version is explicitly selected, this defaults to 0. For compatibility with GCC versions 3.2 through 4.9, use -fabi-compat-version=2.
 
If this option is not provided but -Wabi=n is, that version is used for compatibility aliases. If this option is provided along with -Wabi (without the version), the version from this option is used for the warning.
-fno-access-control
Turn off all access checking. This switch is mainly useful for working around bugs in the access control code.
-faligned-new
Enable support for C++17 "new" of types that require more alignment than "void* ::operator new(std::size_t)" provides. A numeric argument such as "-faligned-new=32" can be used to specify how much alignment (in bytes) is provided by that function, but few users will need to override the default of "alignof(std::max_align_t)".
-fcheck-new
Check that the pointer returned by "operator new" is non-null before attempting to modify the storage allocated. This check is normally unnecessary because the C++ standard specifies that "operator new" only returns 0 if it is declared "throw()", in which case the compiler always checks the return value even without this option. In all other cases, when "operator new" has a non-empty exception specification, memory exhaustion is signalled by throwing "std::bad_alloc". See also new (nothrow).
-fconcepts
Enable support for the C++ Extensions for Concepts Technical Specification, ISO 19217 (2015), which allows code like
 
        template <class T> concept bool Addable = requires (T t) { t + t; };
        template <Addable T> T add (T a, T b) { return a + b; }
    
-fconstexpr-depth=n
Set the maximum nested evaluation depth for C++11 constexpr functions to n. A limit is needed to detect endless recursion during constant expression evaluation. The minimum specified by the standard is 512.
-fconstexpr-loop-limit=n
Set the maximum number of iterations for a loop in C++14 constexpr functions to n. A limit is needed to detect infinite loops during constant expression evaluation. The default is 262144 (1<<18).
-fdeduce-init-list
Enable deduction of a template type parameter as "std::initializer_list" from a brace-enclosed initializer list, i.e.
 
        template <class T> auto forward(T t) -> decltype (realfn (t))
        {
          return realfn (t);
        }
        
        void f()
        {
          forward({1,2}); // call forward<std::initializer_list<int>>
        }
    
 
This deduction was implemented as a possible extension to the originally proposed semantics for the C++11 standard, but was not part of the final standard, so it is disabled by default. This option is deprecated, and may be removed in a future version of G++.
-ffriend-injection
Inject friend functions into the enclosing namespace, so that they are visible outside the scope of the class in which they are declared. Friend functions were documented to work this way in the old Annotated C++ Reference Manual. However, in ISO C++ a friend function that is not declared in an enclosing scope can only be found using argument dependent lookup. GCC defaults to the standard behavior.
 
This option is for compatibility, and may be removed in a future release of G++.
-fno-elide-constructors
The C++ standard allows an implementation to omit creating a temporary that is only used to initialize another object of the same type. Specifying this option disables that optimization, and forces G++ to call the copy constructor in all cases. This option also causes G++ to call trivial member functions which otherwise would be expanded inline.
 
In C++17, the compiler is required to omit these temporaries, but this option still affects trivial member functions.
-fno-enforce-eh-specs
Don't generate code to check for violation of exception specifications at run time. This option violates the C++ standard, but may be useful for reducing code size in production builds, much like defining "NDEBUG". This does not give user code permission to throw exceptions in violation of the exception specifications; the compiler still optimizes based on the specifications, so throwing an unexpected exception results in undefined behavior at run time.
-fextern-tls-init
-fno-extern-tls-init
The C++11 and OpenMP standards allow "thread_local" and "threadprivate" variables to have dynamic (runtime) initialization. To support this, any use of such a variable goes through a wrapper function that performs any necessary initialization. When the use and definition of the variable are in the same translation unit, this overhead can be optimized away, but when the use is in a different translation unit there is significant overhead even if the variable doesn't actually need dynamic initialization. If the programmer can be sure that no use of the variable in a non-defining TU needs to trigger dynamic initialization (either because the variable is statically initialized, or a use of the variable in the defining TU will be executed before any uses in another TU), they can avoid this overhead with the -fno-extern-tls-init option.
 
On targets that support symbol aliases, the default is -fextern-tls-init. On targets that do not support symbol aliases, the default is -fno-extern-tls-init.
-ffor-scope
-fno-for-scope
If -ffor-scope is specified, the scope of variables declared in a for-init-statement is limited to the "for" loop itself, as specified by the C++ standard. If -fno-for-scope is specified, the scope of variables declared in a for-init-statement extends to the end of the enclosing scope, as was the case in old versions of G++, and other (traditional) implementations of C++.
 
If neither flag is given, the default is to follow the standard, but to allow and give a warning for old-style code that would otherwise be invalid, or have different behavior.
-fno-gnu-keywords
Do not recognize "typeof" as a keyword, so that code can use this word as an identifier. You can use the keyword "__typeof__" instead. This option is implied by the strict ISO C++ dialects: -ansi, -std=c++98, -std=c++11, etc.
-fno-implicit-templates
Never emit code for non-inline templates that are instantiated implicitly (i.e. by use); only emit code for explicit instantiations.
-fno-implicit-inline-templates
Don't emit code for implicit instantiations of inline templates, either. The default is to handle inlines differently so that compiles with and without optimization need the same set of explicit instantiations.
-fno-implement-inlines
To save space, do not emit out-of-line copies of inline functions controlled by "#pragma implementation". This causes linker errors if these functions are not inlined everywhere they are called.
-fms-extensions
Disable Wpedantic warnings about constructs used in MFC, such as implicit int and getting a pointer to member function via non-standard syntax.
-fnew-inheriting-ctors
Enable the P0136 adjustment to the semantics of C++11 constructor inheritance. This is part of C++17 but also considered to be a Defect Report against C++11 and C++14. This flag is enabled by default unless -fabi-version=10 or lower is specified.
-fnew-ttp-matching
Enable the P0522 resolution to Core issue 150, template template parameters and default arguments: this allows a template with default template arguments as an argument for a template template parameter with fewer template parameters. This flag is enabled by default for -std=c++1z.
-fno-nonansi-builtins
Disable built-in declarations of functions that are not mandated by ANSI/ISO C. These include "ffs", "alloca", "_exit", "index", "bzero", "conjf", and other related functions.
-fnothrow-opt
Treat a "throw()" exception specification as if it were a "noexcept" specification to reduce or eliminate the text size overhead relative to a function with no exception specification. If the function has local variables of types with non-trivial destructors, the exception specification actually makes the function smaller because the EH cleanups for those variables can be optimized away. The semantic effect is that an exception thrown out of a function with such an exception specification results in a call to "terminate" rather than "unexpected".
-fno-operator-names
Do not treat the operator name keywords "and", "bitand", "bitor", "compl", "not", "or" and "xor" as synonyms as keywords.
-fno-optional-diags
Disable diagnostics that the standard says a compiler does not need to issue. Currently, the only such diagnostic issued by G++ is the one for a name having multiple meanings within a class.
-fpermissive
Downgrade some diagnostics about nonconformant code from errors to warnings. Thus, using -fpermissive allows some nonconforming code to compile.
-fno-pretty-templates
When an error message refers to a specialization of a function template, the compiler normally prints the signature of the template followed by the template arguments and any typedefs or typenames in the signature (e.g. "void f(T) [with T = int]" rather than "void f(int)") so that it's clear which template is involved. When an error message refers to a specialization of a class template, the compiler omits any template arguments that match the default template arguments for that template. If either of these behaviors make it harder to understand the error message rather than easier, you can use -fno-pretty-templates to disable them.
-frepo
Enable automatic template instantiation at link time. This option also implies -fno-implicit-templates.
-fno-rtti
Disable generation of information about every class with virtual functions for use by the C++ run-time type identification features ("dynamic_cast" and "typeid"). If you don't use those parts of the language, you can save some space by using this flag. Note that exception handling uses the same information, but G++ generates it as needed. The "dynamic_cast" operator can still be used for casts that do not require run-time type information, i.e. casts to "void *" or to unambiguous base classes.
-fsized-deallocation
Enable the built-in global declarations
 
        void operator delete (void *, std::size_t) noexcept;
        void operator delete[] (void *, std::size_t) noexcept;
    
 
as introduced in C++14. This is useful for user-defined replacement deallocation functions that, for example, use the size of the object to make deallocation faster. Enabled by default under -std=c++14 and above. The flag -Wsized-deallocation warns about places that might want to add a definition.
-fstrict-enums
Allow the compiler to optimize using the assumption that a value of enumerated type can only be one of the values of the enumeration (as defined in the C++ standard; basically, a value that can be represented in the minimum number of bits needed to represent all the enumerators). This assumption may not be valid if the program uses a cast to convert an arbitrary integer value to the enumerated type.
-fstrong-eval-order
Evaluate member access, array subscripting, and shift expressions in left-to-right order, and evaluate assignment in right-to-left order, as adopted for C++17. Enabled by default with -std=c++1z. -fstrong-eval-order=some enables just the ordering of member access and shift expressions, and is the default without -std=c++1z.
-ftemplate-backtrace-limit=n
Set the maximum number of template instantiation notes for a single warning or error to n. The default value is 10.
-ftemplate-depth=n
Set the maximum instantiation depth for template classes to n. A limit on the template instantiation depth is needed to detect endless recursions during template class instantiation. ANSI/ISO C++ conforming programs must not rely on a maximum depth greater than 17 (changed to 1024 in C++11). The default value is 900, as the compiler can run out of stack space before hitting 1024 in some situations.
-fno-threadsafe-statics
Do not emit the extra code to use the routines specified in the C++ ABI for thread-safe initialization of local statics. You can use this option to reduce code size slightly in code that doesn't need to be thread-safe.
-fuse-cxa-atexit
Register destructors for objects with static storage duration with the "__cxa_atexit" function rather than the "atexit" function. This option is required for fully standards-compliant handling of static destructors, but only works if your C library supports "__cxa_atexit".
-fno-use-cxa-get-exception-ptr
Don't use the "__cxa_get_exception_ptr" runtime routine. This causes "std::uncaught_exception" to be incorrect, but is necessary if the runtime routine is not available.
-fvisibility-inlines-hidden
This switch declares that the user does not attempt to compare pointers to inline functions or methods where the addresses of the two functions are taken in different shared objects.
 
The effect of this is that GCC may, effectively, mark inline methods with "__attribute__ ((visibility ("hidden")))" so that they do not appear in the export table of a DSO and do not require a PLT indirection when used within the DSO. Enabling this option can have a dramatic effect on load and link times of a DSO as it massively reduces the size of the dynamic export table when the library makes heavy use of templates.
 
The behavior of this switch is not quite the same as marking the methods as hidden directly, because it does not affect static variables local to the function or cause the compiler to deduce that the function is defined in only one shared object.
 
You may mark a method as having a visibility explicitly to negate the effect of the switch for that method. For example, if you do want to compare pointers to a particular inline method, you might mark it as having default visibility. Marking the enclosing class with explicit visibility has no effect.
 
Explicitly instantiated inline methods are unaffected by this option as their linkage might otherwise cross a shared library boundary.
-fvisibility-ms-compat
This flag attempts to use visibility settings to make GCC's C++ linkage model compatible with that of Microsoft Visual Studio.
 
The flag makes these changes to GCC's linkage model:
1.
It sets the default visibility to "hidden", like -fvisibility=hidden.
2.
Types, but not their members, are not hidden by default.
3.
The One Definition Rule is relaxed for types without explicit visibility specifications that are defined in more than one shared object: those declarations are permitted if they are permitted when this option is not used.
 
In new code it is better to use -fvisibility=hidden and export those classes that are intended to be externally visible. Unfortunately it is possible for code to rely, perhaps accidentally, on the Visual Studio behavior.
 
Among the consequences of these changes are that static data members of the same type with the same name but defined in different shared objects are different, so changing one does not change the other; and that pointers to function members defined in different shared objects may not compare equal. When this flag is given, it is a violation of the ODR to define types with the same name differently.
-fno-weak
Do not use weak symbol support, even if it is provided by the linker. By default, G++ uses weak symbols if they are available. This option exists only for testing, and should not be used by end-users; it results in inferior code and has no benefits. This option may be removed in a future release of G++.
-nostdinc++
Do not search for header files in the standard directories specific to C++, but do still search the other standard directories. (This option is used when building the C++ library.)
In addition, these optimization, warning, and code generation options have meanings only for C++ programs:
-Wabi (C, Objective-C, C++ and Objective-C++ only)
Warn when G++ it generates code that is probably not compatible with the vendor-neutral C++ ABI. Since G++ now defaults to updating the ABI with each major release, normally -Wabi will warn only if there is a check added later in a release series for an ABI issue discovered since the initial release. -Wabi will warn about more things if an older ABI version is selected (with -fabi-version=n).
 
-Wabi can also be used with an explicit version number to warn about compatibility with a particular -fabi-version level, e.g. -Wabi=2 to warn about changes relative to -fabi-version=2.
 
If an explicit version number is provided and -fabi-compat-version is not specified, the version number from this option is used for compatibility aliases. If no explicit version number is provided with this option, but -fabi-compat-version is specified, that version number is used for ABI warnings.
 
Although an effort has been made to warn about all such cases, there are probably some cases that are not warned about, even though G++ is generating incompatible code. There may also be cases where warnings are emitted even though the code that is generated is compatible.
 
You should rewrite your code to avoid these warnings if you are concerned about the fact that code generated by G++ may not be binary compatible with code generated by other compilers.
 
Known incompatibilities in -fabi-version=2 (which was the default from GCC 3.4 to 4.9) include:
*
A template with a non-type template parameter of reference type was mangled incorrectly:
 
        extern int N;
        template <int &> struct S {};
        void n (S<N>) {2}
    
 
This was fixed in -fabi-version=3.
*
SIMD vector types declared using "__attribute ((vector_size))" were mangled in a non-standard way that does not allow for overloading of functions taking vectors of different sizes.
 
The mangling was changed in -fabi-version=4.
*
"__attribute ((const))" and "noreturn" were mangled as type qualifiers, and "decltype" of a plain declaration was folded away.
 
These mangling issues were fixed in -fabi-version=5.
*
Scoped enumerators passed as arguments to a variadic function are promoted like unscoped enumerators, causing "va_arg" to complain. On most targets this does not actually affect the parameter passing ABI, as there is no way to pass an argument smaller than "int".
 
Also, the ABI changed the mangling of template argument packs, "const_cast", "static_cast", prefix increment/decrement, and a class scope function used as a template argument.
 
These issues were corrected in -fabi-version=6.
*
Lambdas in default argument scope were mangled incorrectly, and the ABI changed the mangling of "nullptr_t".
 
These issues were corrected in -fabi-version=7.
*
When mangling a function type with function-cv-qualifiers, the un-qualified function type was incorrectly treated as a substitution candidate.
 
This was fixed in -fabi-version=8, the default for GCC 5.1.
*
"decltype(nullptr)" incorrectly had an alignment of 1, leading to unaligned accesses. Note that this did not affect the ABI of a function with a "nullptr_t" parameter, as parameters have a minimum alignment.
 
This was fixed in -fabi-version=9, the default for GCC 5.2.
*
Target-specific attributes that affect the identity of a type, such as ia32 calling conventions on a function type (stdcall, regparm, etc.), did not affect the mangled name, leading to name collisions when function pointers were used as template arguments.
 
This was fixed in -fabi-version=10, the default for GCC 6.1.
 
It also warns about psABI-related changes. The known psABI changes at this point include:
*
For SysV/x86-64, unions with "long double" members are passed in memory as specified in psABI. For example:
 
        union U {
          long double ld;
          int i;
        };
    
 
"union U" is always passed in memory.
-Wabi-tag (C++ and Objective-C++ only)
Warn when a type with an ABI tag is used in a context that does not have that ABI tag. See C++ Attributes for more information about ABI tags.
-Wctor-dtor-privacy (C++ and Objective-C++ only)
Warn when a class seems unusable because all the constructors or destructors in that class are private, and it has neither friends nor public static member functions. Also warn if there are no non-private methods, and there's at least one private member function that isn't a constructor or destructor.
-Wdelete-non-virtual-dtor (C++ and Objective-C++ only)
Warn when "delete" is used to destroy an instance of a class that has virtual functions and non-virtual destructor. It is unsafe to delete an instance of a derived class through a pointer to a base class if the base class does not have a virtual destructor. This warning is enabled by -Wall.
-Wliteral-suffix (C++ and Objective-C++ only)
Warn when a string or character literal is followed by a ud-suffix which does not begin with an underscore. As a conforming extension, GCC treats such suffixes as separate preprocessing tokens in order to maintain backwards compatibility with code that uses formatting macros from "<inttypes.h>". For example:
 
        #define __STDC_FORMAT_MACROS
        #include <inttypes.h>
        #include <stdio.h>
        
        int main() {
          int64_t i64 = 123;
          printf("My int64: %" PRId64"\n", i64);
        }
    
 
In this case, "PRId64" is treated as a separate preprocessing token.
 
Additionally, warn when a user-defined literal operator is declared with a literal suffix identifier that doesn't begin with an underscore. Literal suffix identifiers that don't begin with an underscore are reserved for future standardization.
 
This warning is enabled by default.
-Wlto-type-mismatch
During the link-time optimization warn about type mismatches in global declarations from different compilation units. Requires -flto to be enabled. Enabled by default.
-Wno-narrowing (C++ and Objective-C++ only)
For C++11 and later standards, narrowing conversions are diagnosed by default, as required by the standard. A narrowing conversion from a constant produces an error, and a narrowing conversion from a non-constant produces a warning, but -Wno-narrowing suppresses the diagnostic. Note that this does not affect the meaning of well-formed code; narrowing conversions are still considered ill-formed in SFINAE contexts.
 
With -Wnarrowing in C++98, warn when a narrowing conversion prohibited by C++11 occurs within { }, e.g.
 
        int i = { 2.2 }; // error: narrowing from double to int
    
 
This flag is included in -Wall and -Wc++11-compat.
-Wnoexcept (C++ and Objective-C++ only)
Warn when a noexcept-expression evaluates to false because of a call to a function that does not have a non-throwing exception specification (i.e. "throw()" or "noexcept") but is known by the compiler to never throw an exception.
-Wnoexcept-type (C++ and Objective-C++ only)
Warn if the C++1z feature making "noexcept" part of a function type changes the mangled name of a symbol relative to C++14. Enabled by -Wabi and -Wc++1z-compat.
 
        template <class T> void f(T t) { t(); };
        void g() noexcept;
        void h() { f(g); } // in C++14 calls f<void(*)()>, in C++1z calls f<void(*)()noexcept>
    
-Wnon-virtual-dtor (C++ and Objective-C++ only)
Warn when a class has virtual functions and an accessible non-virtual destructor itself or in an accessible polymorphic base class, in which case it is possible but unsafe to delete an instance of a derived class through a pointer to the class itself or base class. This warning is automatically enabled if -Weffc++ is specified.
-Wregister (C++ and Objective-C++ only)
Warn on uses of the "register" storage class specifier, except when it is part of the GNU Explicit Register Variables extension. The use of the "register" keyword as storage class specifier has been deprecated in C++11 and removed in C++17. Enabled by default with -std=c++1z.
-Wreorder (C++ and Objective-C++ only)
Warn when the order of member initializers given in the code does not match the order in which they must be executed. For instance:
 
        struct A {
          int i;
          int j;
          A(): j (0), i (1) { }
        };
    
 
The compiler rearranges the member initializers for "i" and "j" to match the declaration order of the members, emitting a warning to that effect. This warning is enabled by -Wall.
-fext-numeric-literals (C++ and Objective-C++ only)
Accept imaginary, fixed-point, or machine-defined literal number suffixes as GNU extensions. When this option is turned off these suffixes are treated as C++11 user-defined literal numeric suffixes. This is on by default for all pre-C++11 dialects and all GNU dialects: -std=c++98, -std=gnu++98, -std=gnu++11, -std=gnu++14. This option is off by default for ISO C++11 onwards ( -std=c++11, ...).
The following -W... options are not affected by -Wall.
-Weffc++ (C++ and Objective-C++ only)
Warn about violations of the following style guidelines from Scott Meyers' Effective C++ series of books:
*
Define a copy constructor and an assignment operator for classes with dynamically-allocated memory.
*
Prefer initialization to assignment in constructors.
*
Have "operator=" return a reference to *this.
*
Don't try to return a reference when you must return an object.
*
Distinguish between prefix and postfix forms of increment and decrement operators.
*
Never overload "&&", "||", or ",".
 
This option also enables -Wnon-virtual-dtor, which is also one of the effective C++ recommendations. However, the check is extended to warn about the lack of virtual destructor in accessible non-polymorphic bases classes too.
 
When selecting this option, be aware that the standard library headers do not obey all of these guidelines; use grep -v to filter out those warnings.
-Wstrict-null-sentinel (C++ and Objective-C++ only)
Warn about the use of an uncasted "NULL" as sentinel. When compiling only with GCC this is a valid sentinel, as "NULL" is defined to "__null". Although it is a null pointer constant rather than a null pointer, it is guaranteed to be of the same size as a pointer. But this use is not portable across different compilers.
-Wno-non-template-friend (C++ and Objective-C++ only)
Disable warnings when non-template friend functions are declared within a template. In very old versions of GCC that predate implementation of the ISO standard, declarations such as friend int foo(int), where the name of the friend is an unqualified-id, could be interpreted as a particular specialization of a template function; the warning exists to diagnose compatibility problems, and is enabled by default.
-Wold-style-cast (C++ and Objective-C++ only)
Warn if an old-style (C-style) cast to a non-void type is used within a C++ program. The new-style casts ("dynamic_cast", "static_cast", "reinterpret_cast", and "const_cast") are less vulnerable to unintended effects and much easier to search for.
-Woverloaded-virtual (C++ and Objective-C++ only)
Warn when a function declaration hides virtual functions from a base class. For example, in:
 
        struct A {
          virtual void f();
        };
        
        struct B: public A {
          void f(int);
        };
    
 
the "A" class version of "f" is hidden in "B", and code like:
 
        B* b;
        b->f();
    
 
fails to compile.
-Wno-pmf-conversions (C++ and Objective-C++ only)
Disable the diagnostic for converting a bound pointer to member function to a plain pointer.
-Wsign-promo (C++ and Objective-C++ only)
Warn when overload resolution chooses a promotion from unsigned or enumerated type to a signed type, over a conversion to an unsigned type of the same size. Previous versions of G++ tried to preserve unsignedness, but the standard mandates the current behavior.
-Wtemplates (C++ and Objective-C++ only)
Warn when a primary template declaration is encountered. Some coding rules disallow templates, and this may be used to enforce that rule. The warning is inactive inside a system header file, such as the STL, so one can still use the STL. One may also instantiate or specialize templates.
-Wmultiple-inheritance (C++ and Objective-C++ only)
Warn when a class is defined with multiple direct base classes. Some coding rules disallow multiple inheritance, and this may be used to enforce that rule. The warning is inactive inside a system header file, such as the STL, so one can still use the STL. One may also define classes that indirectly use multiple inheritance.
-Wvirtual-inheritance
Warn when a class is defined with a virtual direct base class. Some coding rules disallow multiple inheritance, and this may be used to enforce that rule. The warning is inactive inside a system header file, such as the STL, so one can still use the STL. One may also define classes that indirectly use virtual inheritance.
-Wnamespaces
Warn when a namespace definition is opened. Some coding rules disallow namespaces, and this may be used to enforce that rule. The warning is inactive inside a system header file, such as the STL, so one can still use the STL. One may also use using directives and qualified names.
-Wno-terminate (C++ and Objective-C++ only)
Disable the warning about a throw-expression that will immediately result in a call to "terminate".

Options Controlling Objective-C and Objective-C++ Dialects

(NOTE: This manual does not describe the Objective-C and Objective-C++ languages themselves.
This section describes the command-line options that are only meaningful for Objective-C and Objective-C++ programs. You can also use most of the language-independent GNU compiler options. For example, you might compile a file some_class.m like this:
        gcc -g -fgnu-runtime -O -c some_class.m
In this example, -fgnu-runtime is an option meant only for Objective-C and Objective-C++ programs; you can use the other options with any language supported by GCC.
Note that since Objective-C is an extension of the C language, Objective-C compilations may also use options specific to the C front-end (e.g., -Wtraditional). Similarly, Objective-C++ compilations may use C++-specific options (e.g., -Wabi).
Here is a list of options that are only for compiling Objective-C and Objective-C++ programs:
-fconstant-string-class=class-name
Use class-name as the name of the class to instantiate for each literal string specified with the syntax "@"..."". The default class name is "NXConstantString" if the GNU runtime is being used, and "NSConstantString" if the NeXT runtime is being used (see below). The -fconstant-cfstrings option, if also present, overrides the -fconstant-string-class setting and cause "@"..."" literals to be laid out as constant CoreFoundation strings.
-fgnu-runtime
Generate object code compatible with the standard GNU Objective-C runtime. This is the default for most types of systems.
-fnext-runtime
Generate output compatible with the NeXT runtime. This is the default for NeXT-based systems, including Darwin and Mac OS X. The macro "__NEXT_RUNTIME__" is predefined if (and only if) this option is used.
-fno-nil-receivers
Assume that all Objective-C message dispatches ("[receiver message:arg]") in this translation unit ensure that the receiver is not "nil". This allows for more efficient entry points in the runtime to be used. This option is only available in conjunction with the NeXT runtime and ABI version 0 or 1.
-fobjc-abi-version=n
Use version n of the Objective-C ABI for the selected runtime. This option is currently supported only for the NeXT runtime. In that case, Version 0 is the traditional (32-bit) ABI without support for properties and other Objective-C 2.0 additions. Version 1 is the traditional (32-bit) ABI with support for properties and other Objective-C 2.0 additions. Version 2 is the modern (64-bit) ABI. If nothing is specified, the default is Version 0 on 32-bit target machines, and Version 2 on 64-bit target machines.
-fobjc-call-cxx-cdtors
For each Objective-C class, check if any of its instance variables is a C++ object with a non-trivial default constructor. If so, synthesize a special "- (id) .cxx_construct" instance method which runs non-trivial default constructors on any such instance variables, in order, and then return "self". Similarly, check if any instance variable is a C++ object with a non-trivial destructor, and if so, synthesize a special "- (void) .cxx_destruct" method which runs all such default destructors, in reverse order.
 
The "- (id) .cxx_construct" and "- (void) .cxx_destruct" methods thusly generated only operate on instance variables declared in the current Objective-C class, and not those inherited from superclasses. It is the responsibility of the Objective-C runtime to invoke all such methods in an object's inheritance hierarchy. The "- (id) .cxx_construct" methods are invoked by the runtime immediately after a new object instance is allocated; the "- (void) .cxx_destruct" methods are invoked immediately before the runtime deallocates an object instance.
 
As of this writing, only the NeXT runtime on Mac OS X 10.4 and later has support for invoking the "- (id) .cxx_construct" and "- (void) .cxx_destruct" methods.
-fobjc-direct-dispatch
Allow fast jumps to the message dispatcher. On Darwin this is accomplished via the comm page.
-fobjc-exceptions
Enable syntactic support for structured exception handling in Objective-C, similar to what is offered by C++. This option is required to use the Objective-C keywords @try, @throw, @catch, @finally and @synchronized. This option is available with both the GNU runtime and the NeXT runtime (but not available in conjunction with the NeXT runtime on Mac OS X 10.2 and earlier).
-fobjc-gc
Enable garbage collection (GC) in Objective-C and Objective-C++ programs. This option is only available with the NeXT runtime; the GNU runtime has a different garbage collection implementation that does not require special compiler flags.
-fobjc-nilcheck
For the NeXT runtime with version 2 of the ABI, check for a nil receiver in method invocations before doing the actual method call. This is the default and can be disabled using -fno-objc-nilcheck. Class methods and super calls are never checked for nil in this way no matter what this flag is set to. Currently this flag does nothing when the GNU runtime, or an older version of the NeXT runtime ABI, is used.
-fobjc-std=objc1
Conform to the language syntax of Objective-C 1.0, the language recognized by GCC 4.0. This only affects the Objective-C additions to the C/C++ language; it does not affect conformance to C/C++ standards, which is controlled by the separate C/C++ dialect option flags. When this option is used with the Objective-C or Objective-C++ compiler, any Objective-C syntax that is not recognized by GCC 4.0 is rejected. This is useful if you need to make sure that your Objective-C code can be compiled with older versions of GCC.
-freplace-objc-classes
Emit a special marker instructing ld(1) not to statically link in the resulting object file, and allow dyld(1) to load it in at run time instead. This is used in conjunction with the Fix-and-Continue debugging mode, where the object file in question may be recompiled and dynamically reloaded in the course of program execution, without the need to restart the program itself. Currently, Fix-and-Continue functionality is only available in conjunction with the NeXT runtime on Mac OS X 10.3 and later.
-fzero-link
When compiling for the NeXT runtime, the compiler ordinarily replaces calls to "objc_getClass("...")" (when the name of the class is known at compile time) with static class references that get initialized at load time, which improves run-time performance. Specifying the -fzero-link flag suppresses this behavior and causes calls to "objc_getClass("...")" to be retained. This is useful in Zero-Link debugging mode, since it allows for individual class implementations to be modified during program execution. The GNU runtime currently always retains calls to "objc_get_class("...")" regardless of command-line options.
-fno-local-ivars
By default instance variables in Objective-C can be accessed as if they were local variables from within the methods of the class they're declared in. This can lead to shadowing between instance variables and other variables declared either locally inside a class method or globally with the same name. Specifying the -fno-local-ivars flag disables this behavior thus avoiding variable shadowing issues.
-fivar-visibility=[public|protected|private|package]
Set the default instance variable visibility to the specified option so that instance variables declared outside the scope of any access modifier directives default to the specified visibility.
-gen-decls
Dump interface declarations for all classes seen in the source file to a file named sourcename.decl.
-Wassign-intercept (Objective-C and Objective-C++ only)
Warn whenever an Objective-C assignment is being intercepted by the garbage collector.
-Wno-protocol (Objective-C and Objective-C++ only)
If a class is declared to implement a protocol, a warning is issued for every method in the protocol that is not implemented by the class. The default behavior is to issue a warning for every method not explicitly implemented in the class, even if a method implementation is inherited from the superclass. If you use the -Wno-protocol option, then methods inherited from the superclass are considered to be implemented, and no warning is issued for them.
-Wselector (Objective-C and Objective-C++ only)
Warn if multiple methods of different types for the same selector are found during compilation. The check is performed on the list of methods in the final stage of compilation. Additionally, a check is performed for each selector appearing in a "@selector(...)" expression, and a corresponding method for that selector has been found during compilation. Because these checks scan the method table only at the end of compilation, these warnings are not produced if the final stage of compilation is not reached, for example because an error is found during compilation, or because the -fsyntax-only option is being used.
-Wstrict-selector-match (Objective-C and Objective-C++ only)
Warn if multiple methods with differing argument and/or return types are found for a given selector when attempting to send a message using this selector to a receiver of type "id" or "Class". When this flag is off (which is the default behavior), the compiler omits such warnings if any differences found are confined to types that share the same size and alignment.
-Wundeclared-selector (Objective-C and Objective-C++ only)
Warn if a "@selector(...)" expression referring to an undeclared selector is found. A selector is considered undeclared if no method with that name has been declared before the "@selector(...)" expression, either explicitly in an @interface or @protocol declaration, or implicitly in an @implementation section. This option always performs its checks as soon as a "@selector(...)" expression is found, while -Wselector only performs its checks in the final stage of compilation. This also enforces the coding style convention that methods and selectors must be declared before being used.
-print-objc-runtime-info
Generate C header describing the largest structure that is passed by value, if any.

Options to Control Diagnostic Messages Formatting

Traditionally, diagnostic messages have been formatted irrespective of the output device's aspect (e.g. its width, ...). You can use the options described below to control the formatting algorithm for diagnostic messages, e.g. how many characters per line, how often source location information should be reported. Note that some language front ends may not honor these options.
-fmessage-length=n
Try to format error messages so that they fit on lines of about n characters. If n is zero, then no line-wrapping is done; each error message appears on a single line. This is the default for all front ends.
-fdiagnostics-show-location=once
Only meaningful in line-wrapping mode. Instructs the diagnostic messages reporter to emit source location information once; that is, in case the message is too long to fit on a single physical line and has to be wrapped, the source location won't be emitted (as prefix) again, over and over, in subsequent continuation lines. This is the default behavior.
-fdiagnostics-show-location=every-line
Only meaningful in line-wrapping mode. Instructs the diagnostic messages reporter to emit the same source location information (as prefix) for physical lines that result from the process of breaking a message which is too long to fit on a single line.
-fdiagnostics-color[=WHEN]
-fno-diagnostics-color
Use color in diagnostics. WHEN is never, always, or auto. The default depends on how the compiler has been configured, it can be any of the above WHEN options or also never if GCC_COLORS environment variable isn't present in the environment, and auto otherwise. auto means to use color only when the standard error is a terminal. The forms -fdiagnostics-color and -fno-diagnostics-color are aliases for -fdiagnostics-color=always and -fdiagnostics-color=never, respectively.
 
The colors are defined by the environment variable GCC_COLORS. Its value is a colon-separated list of capabilities and Select Graphic Rendition (SGR) substrings. SGR commands are interpreted by the terminal or terminal emulator. (See the section in the documentation of your text terminal for permitted values and their meanings as character attributes.) These substring values are integers in decimal representation and can be concatenated with semicolons. Common values to concatenate include 1 for bold, 4 for underline, 5 for blink, 7 for inverse, 39 for default foreground color, 30 to 37 for foreground colors, 90 to 97 for 16-color mode foreground colors, 38;5;0 to 38;5;255 for 88-color and 256-color modes foreground colors, 49 for default background color, 40 to 47 for background colors, 100 to 107 for 16-color mode background colors, and 48;5;0 to 48;5;255 for 88-color and 256-color modes background colors.
 
The default GCC_COLORS is
 
        error=01;31:warning=01;35:note=01;36:range1=32:range2=34:locus=01:\
        quote=01:fixit-insert=32:fixit-delete=31:\
        diff-filename=01:diff-hunk=32:diff-delete=31:diff-insert=32
    
 
where 01;31 is bold red, 01;35 is bold magenta, 01;36 is bold cyan, 32 is green, 34 is blue, 01 is bold, and 31 is red. Setting GCC_COLORS to the empty string disables colors. Supported capabilities are as follows.
"error="
SGR substring for error: markers.
"warning="
SGR substring for warning: markers.
"note="
SGR substring for note: markers.
"range1="
SGR substring for first additional range.
"range2="
SGR substring for second additional range.
"locus="
SGR substring for location information, file:line or file:line:column etc.
"quote="
SGR substring for information printed within quotes.
"fixit-insert="
SGR substring for fix-it hints suggesting text to be inserted or replaced.
"fixit-delete="
SGR substring for fix-it hints suggesting text to be deleted.
"diff-filename="
SGR substring for filename headers within generated patches.
"diff-hunk="
SGR substring for the starts of hunks within generated patches.
"diff-delete="
SGR substring for deleted lines within generated patches.
"diff-insert="
SGR substring for inserted lines within generated patches.
-fno-diagnostics-show-option
By default, each diagnostic emitted includes text indicating the command-line option that directly controls the diagnostic (if such an option is known to the diagnostic machinery). Specifying the -fno-diagnostics-show-option flag suppresses that behavior.
-fno-diagnostics-show-caret
By default, each diagnostic emitted includes the original source line and a caret ^ indicating the column. This option suppresses this information. The source line is truncated to n characters, if the -fmessage-length=n option is given. When the output is done to the terminal, the width is limited to the width given by the COLUMNS environment variable or, if not set, to the terminal width.
-fdiagnostics-parseable-fixits
Emit fix-it hints in a machine-parseable format, suitable for consumption by IDEs. For each fix-it, a line will be printed after the relevant diagnostic, starting with the string "fix-it:". For example:
 
        fix-it:"test.c":{45:3-45:21}:"gtk_widget_show_all"
    
 
The location is expressed as a half-open range, expressed as a count of bytes, starting at byte 1 for the initial column. In the above example, bytes 3 through 20 of line 45 of "test.c" are to be replaced with the given string:
 
        00000000011111111112222222222
        12345678901234567890123456789
          gtk_widget_showall (dlg);
          ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
          gtk_widget_show_all
    
 
The filename and replacement string escape backslash as "\\", tab as "\t", newline as "\n", double quotes as "\"", non-printable characters as octal (e.g. vertical tab as "\013").
 
An empty replacement string indicates that the given range is to be removed. An empty range (e.g. "45:3-45:3") indicates that the string is to be inserted at the given position.
-fdiagnostics-generate-patch
Print fix-it hints to stderr in unified diff format, after any diagnostics are printed. For example:
 
        --- test.c
        +++ test.c
        @ -42,5 +42,5 @
        
         void show_cb(GtkDialog *dlg)
         {
        -  gtk_widget_showall(dlg);
        +  gtk_widget_show_all(dlg);
         }
    
 
The diff may or may not be colorized, following the same rules as for diagnostics (see -fdiagnostics-color).
-fno-show-column
Do not print column numbers in diagnostics. This may be necessary if diagnostics are being scanned by a program that does not understand the column numbers, such as dejagnu.

Options to Request or Suppress Warnings

Warnings are diagnostic messages that report constructions that are not inherently erroneous but that are risky or suggest there may have been an error.
The following language-independent options do not enable specific warnings but control the kinds of diagnostics produced by GCC.
-fsyntax-only
Check the code for syntax errors, but don't do anything beyond that.
-fmax-errors=n
Limits the maximum number of error messages to n, at which point GCC bails out rather than attempting to continue processing the source code. If n is 0 (the default), there is no limit on the number of error messages produced. If -Wfatal-errors is also specified, then -Wfatal-errors takes precedence over this option.
-w
Inhibit all warning messages.
-Werror
Make all warnings into errors.
-Werror=
Make the specified warning into an error. The specifier for a warning is appended; for example -Werror=switch turns the warnings controlled by -Wswitch into errors. This switch takes a negative form, to be used to negate -Werror for specific warnings; for example -Wno-error=switch makes -Wswitch warnings not be errors, even when -Werror is in effect.
 
The warning message for each controllable warning includes the option that controls the warning. That option can then be used with -Werror= and -Wno-error= as described above. (Printing of the option in the warning message can be disabled using the -fno-diagnostics-show-option flag.)
 
Note that specifying -Werror=foo automatically implies -W foo. However, -Wno-error=foo does not imply anything.
-Wfatal-errors
This option causes the compiler to abort compilation on the first error occurred rather than trying to keep going and printing further error messages.
You can request many specific warnings with options beginning with -W, for example -Wimplicit to request warnings on implicit declarations. Each of these specific warning options also has a negative form beginning -Wno- to turn off warnings; for example, -Wno-implicit. This manual lists only one of the two forms, whichever is not the default. For further language-specific options also refer to C++ Dialect Options and Objective-C and Objective-C++ Dialect Options.
Some options, such as -Wall and -Wextra, turn on other options, such as -Wunused, which may turn on further options, such as -Wunused-value. The combined effect of positive and negative forms is that more specific options have priority over less specific ones, independently of their position in the command-line. For options of the same specificity, the last one takes effect. Options enabled or disabled via pragmas take effect as if they appeared at the end of the command-line.
When an unrecognized warning option is requested (e.g., -Wunknown-warning), GCC emits a diagnostic stating that the option is not recognized. However, if the -Wno- form is used, the behavior is slightly different: no diagnostic is produced for -Wno-unknown-warning unless other diagnostics are being produced. This allows the use of new -Wno- options with old compilers, but if something goes wrong, the compiler warns that an unrecognized option is present.
-Wpedantic
-pedantic
Issue all the warnings demanded by strict ISO C and ISO C++; reject all programs that use forbidden extensions, and some other programs that do not follow ISO C and ISO C++. For ISO C, follows the version of the ISO C standard specified by any -std option used.
 
Valid ISO C and ISO C++ programs should compile properly with or without this option (though a rare few require -ansi or a -std option specifying the required version of ISO C). However, without this option, certain GNU extensions and traditional C and C++ features are supported as well. With this option, they are rejected.
 
-Wpedantic does not cause warning messages for use of the alternate keywords whose names begin and end with __. Pedantic warnings are also disabled in the expression that follows "__extension__". However, only system header files should use these escape routes; application programs should avoid them.
 
Some users try to use -Wpedantic to check programs for strict ISO C conformance. They soon find that it does not do quite what they want: it finds some non-ISO practices, but not all---only those for which ISO C requires a diagnostic, and some others for which diagnostics have been added.
 
A feature to report any failure to conform to ISO C might be useful in some instances, but would require considerable additional work and would be quite different from -Wpedantic. We don't have plans to support such a feature in the near future.
 
Where the standard specified with -std represents a GNU extended dialect of C, such as gnu90 or gnu99, there is a corresponding base standard, the version of ISO C on which the GNU extended dialect is based. Warnings from -Wpedantic are given where they are required by the base standard. (It does not make sense for such warnings to be given only for features not in the specified GNU C dialect, since by definition the GNU dialects of C include all features the compiler supports with the given option, and there would be nothing to warn about.)
-pedantic-errors
Give an error whenever the base standard (see -Wpedantic) requires a diagnostic, in some cases where there is undefined behavior at compile-time and in some other cases that do not prevent compilation of programs that are valid according to the standard. This is not equivalent to -Werror=pedantic, since there are errors enabled by this option and not enabled by the latter and vice versa.
-Wall
This enables all the warnings about constructions that some users consider questionable, and that are easy to avoid (or modify to prevent the warning), even in conjunction with macros. This also enables some language-specific warnings described in C++ Dialect Options and Objective-C and Objective-C++ Dialect Options.
 
-Wall turns on the following warning flags:
 
-Waddress -Warray-bounds=1 (only with -O2) -Wbool-compare -Wbool-operation -Wc++11-compat -Wc++14-compat -Wchar-subscripts -Wcomment -Wduplicate-decl-specifier (C and Objective-C only) -Wenum-compare (in C/ObjC; this is on by default in C++) -Wformat -Wint-in-bool-context -Wimplicit (C and Objective-C only) -Wimplicit-int (C and Objective-C only) -Wimplicit-function-declaration (C and Objective-C only) -Winit-self (only for C++) -Wlogical-not-parentheses -Wmain (only for C/ObjC and unless -ffreestanding) -Wmaybe-uninitialized -Wmemset-elt-size -Wmemset-transposed-args -Wmisleading-indentation (only for C/C++) -Wmissing-braces (only for C/ObjC) -Wnarrowing (only for C++) -Wnonnull -Wnonnull-compare -Wopenmp-simd -Wparentheses -Wpointer-sign -Wreorder -Wreturn-type -Wsequence-point -Wsign-compare (only in C++) -Wsizeof-pointer-memaccess -Wstrict-aliasing -Wstrict-overflow=1 -Wswitch -Wtautological-compare -Wtrigraphs -Wuninitialized -Wunknown-pragmas -Wunused-function -Wunused-label -Wunused-value -Wunused-variable -Wvolatile-register-var
 
Note that some warning flags are not implied by -Wall. Some of them warn about constructions that users generally do not consider questionable, but which occasionally you might wish to check for; others warn about constructions that are necessary or hard to avoid in some cases, and there is no simple way to modify the code to suppress the warning. Some of them are enabled by -Wextra but many of them must be enabled individually.
-Wextra
This enables some extra warning flags that are not enabled by -Wall. (This option used to be called -W. The older name is still supported, but the newer name is more descriptive.)
 
-Wclobbered -Wempty-body -Wignored-qualifiers -Wimplicit-fallthrough=3 -Wmissing-field-initializers -Wmissing-parameter-type (C only) -Wold-style-declaration (C only) -Woverride-init -Wsign-compare (C only) -Wtype-limits -Wuninitialized -Wshift-negative-value (in C++03 and in C99 and newer) -Wunused-parameter (only with -Wunused or -Wall) -Wunused-but-set-parameter (only with -Wunused or -Wall)
 
The option -Wextra also prints warning messages for the following cases:
*
A pointer is compared against integer zero with "<", "<=", ">", or ">=".
*
(C++ only) An enumerator and a non-enumerator both appear in a conditional expression.
*
(C++ only) Ambiguous virtual bases.
*
(C++ only) Subscripting an array that has been declared "register".
*
(C++ only) Taking the address of a variable that has been declared "register".
*
(C++ only) A base class is not initialized in the copy constructor of a derived class.
-Wchar-subscripts
Warn if an array subscript has type "char". This is a common cause of error, as programmers often forget that this type is signed on some machines. This warning is enabled by -Wall.
-Wchkp
Warn about an invalid memory access that is found by Pointer Bounds Checker ( -fcheck-pointer-bounds).
-Wno-coverage-mismatch
Warn if feedback profiles do not match when using the -fprofile-use option. If a source file is changed between compiling with -fprofile-gen and with -fprofile-use, the files with the profile feedback can fail to match the source file and GCC cannot use the profile feedback information. By default, this warning is enabled and is treated as an error. -Wno-coverage-mismatch can be used to disable the warning or -Wno-error=coverage-mismatch can be used to disable the error. Disabling the error for this warning can result in poorly optimized code and is useful only in the case of very minor changes such as bug fixes to an existing code-base. Completely disabling the warning is not recommended.
-Wno-cpp
(C, Objective-C, C++, Objective-C++ and Fortran only)
 
Suppress warning messages emitted by "#warning" directives.
-Wdouble-promotion (C, C++, Objective-C and Objective-C++ only)
Give a warning when a value of type "float" is implicitly promoted to "double". CPUs with a 32-bit "single-precision" floating-point unit implement "float" in hardware, but emulate "double" in software. On such a machine, doing computations using "double" values is much more expensive because of the overhead required for software emulation.
 
It is easy to accidentally do computations with "double" because floating-point literals are implicitly of type "double". For example, in:
 
        float area(float radius)
        {
           return 3.14159 * radius * radius;
        }
    
 
the compiler performs the entire computation with "double" because the floating-point literal is a "double".
-Wduplicate-decl-specifier (C and Objective-C only)
Warn if a declaration has duplicate "const", "volatile", "restrict" or "_Atomic" specifier. This warning is enabled by -Wall.
-Wformat
-Wformat=n
Check calls to "printf" and "scanf", etc., to make sure that the arguments supplied have types appropriate to the format string specified, and that the conversions specified in the format string make sense. This includes standard functions, and others specified by format attributes, in the "printf", "scanf", "strftime" and "strfmon" (an X/Open extension, not in the C standard) families (or other target-specific families). Which functions are checked without format attributes having been specified depends on the standard version selected, and such checks of functions without the attribute specified are disabled by -ffreestanding or -fno-builtin.
 
The formats are checked against the format features supported by GNU libc version 2.2. These include all ISO C90 and C99 features, as well as features from the Single Unix Specification and some BSD and GNU extensions. Other library implementations may not support all these features; GCC does not support warning about features that go beyond a particular library's limitations. However, if -Wpedantic is used with -Wformat, warnings are given about format features not in the selected standard version (but not for "strfmon" formats, since those are not in any version of the C standard).
-Wformat=1
-Wformat
Option -Wformat is equivalent to -Wformat=1, and -Wno-format is equivalent to -Wformat=0. Since -Wformat also checks for null format arguments for several functions, -Wformat also implies -Wnonnull. Some aspects of this level of format checking can be disabled by the options: -Wno-format-contains-nul, -Wno-format-extra-args, and -Wno-format-zero-length. -Wformat is enabled by -Wall.
-Wno-format-contains-nul
If -Wformat is specified, do not warn about format strings that contain NUL bytes.
-Wno-format-extra-args
If -Wformat is specified, do not warn about excess arguments to a "printf" or "scanf" format function. The C standard specifies that such arguments are ignored.
 
Where the unused arguments lie between used arguments that are specified with $ operand number specifications, normally warnings are still given, since the implementation could not know what type to pass to "va_arg" to skip the unused arguments. However, in the case of "scanf" formats, this option suppresses the warning if the unused arguments are all pointers, since the Single Unix Specification says that such unused arguments are allowed.
-Wformat-overflow
-Wformat-overflow=level
Warn about calls to formatted input/output functions such as "sprintf" and "vsprintf" that might overflow the destination buffer. When the exact number of bytes written by a format directive cannot be determined at compile-time it is estimated based on heuristics that depend on the level argument and on optimization. While enabling optimization will in most cases improve the accuracy of the warning, it may also result in false positives.
-Wformat-overflow
-Wformat-overflow=1
Level 1 of -Wformat-overflow enabled by -Wformat employs a conservative approach that warns only about calls that most likely overflow the buffer. At this level, numeric arguments to format directives with unknown values are assumed to have the value of one, and strings of unknown length to be empty. Numeric arguments that are known to be bounded to a subrange of their type, or string arguments whose output is bounded either by their directive's precision or by a finite set of string literals, are assumed to take on the value within the range that results in the most bytes on output. For example, the call to "sprintf" below is diagnosed because even with both a and b equal to zero, the terminating NUL character ('\0') appended by the function to the destination buffer will be written past its end. Increasing the size of the buffer by a single byte is sufficient to avoid the warning, though it may not be sufficient to avoid the overflow.
 
        void f (int a, int b)
        {
          char buf [12];
          sprintf (buf, "a = %i, b = %i\n", a, b);
        }
    
-Wformat-overflow=2
Level 2 warns also about calls that might overflow the destination buffer given an argument of sufficient length or magnitude. At level 2, unknown numeric arguments are assumed to have the minimum representable value for signed types with a precision greater than 1, and the maximum representable value otherwise. Unknown string arguments whose length cannot be assumed to be bounded either by the directive's precision, or by a finite set of string literals they may evaluate to, or the character array they may point to, are assumed to be 1 character long.
 
At level 2, the call in the example above is again diagnosed, but this time because with a equal to a 32-bit "INT_MIN" the first %i directive will write some of its digits beyond the end of the destination buffer. To make the call safe regardless of the values of the two variables, the size of the destination buffer must be increased to at least 34 bytes. GCC includes the minimum size of the buffer in an informational note following the warning.
 
An alternative to increasing the size of the destination buffer is to constrain the range of formatted values. The maximum length of string arguments can be bounded by specifying the precision in the format directive. When numeric arguments of format directives can be assumed to be bounded by less than the precision of their type, choosing an appropriate length modifier to the format specifier will reduce the required buffer size. For example, if a and b in the example above can be assumed to be within the precision of the "short int" type then using either the %hi format directive or casting the argument to "short" reduces the maximum required size of the buffer to 24 bytes.
 
        void f (int a, int b)
        {
          char buf [23];
          sprintf (buf, "a = %hi, b = %i\n", a, (short)b);
        }
    
-Wno-format-zero-length
If -Wformat is specified, do not warn about zero-length formats. The C standard specifies that zero-length formats are allowed.
-Wformat=2
Enable -Wformat plus additional format checks. Currently equivalent to -Wformat -Wformat-nonliteral -Wformat-security -Wformat-y2k.
-Wformat-nonliteral
If -Wformat is specified, also warn if the format string is not a string literal and so cannot be checked, unless the format function takes its format arguments as a "va_list".
-Wformat-security
If -Wformat is specified, also warn about uses of format functions that represent possible security problems. At present, this warns about calls to "printf" and "scanf" functions where the format string is not a string literal and there are no format arguments, as in "printf (foo);". This may be a security hole if the format string came from untrusted input and contains %n. (This is currently a subset of what -Wformat-nonliteral warns about, but in future warnings may be added to -Wformat-security that are not included in -Wformat-nonliteral.)
-Wformat-signedness
If -Wformat is specified, also warn if the format string requires an unsigned argument and the argument is signed and vice versa.
-Wformat-truncation
-Wformat-truncation=level
Warn about calls to formatted input/output functions such as "snprintf" and "vsnprintf" that might result in output truncation. When the exact number of bytes written by a format directive cannot be determined at compile-time it is estimated based on heuristics that depend on the level argument and on optimization. While enabling optimization will in most cases improve the accuracy of the warning, it may also result in false positives. Except as noted otherwise, the option uses the same logic -Wformat-overflow.
-Wformat-truncation
-Wformat-truncation=1
Level 1 of -Wformat-truncation enabled by -Wformat employs a conservative approach that warns only about calls to bounded functions whose return value is unused and that will most likely result in output truncation.
-Wformat-truncation=2
Level 2 warns also about calls to bounded functions whose return value is used and that might result in truncation given an argument of sufficient length or magnitude.
-Wformat-y2k
If -Wformat is specified, also warn about "strftime" formats that may yield only a two-digit year.
-Wnonnull
Warn about passing a null pointer for arguments marked as requiring a non-null value by the "nonnull" function attribute.
 
-Wnonnull is included in -Wall and -Wformat. It can be disabled with the -Wno-nonnull option.
-Wnonnull-compare
Warn when comparing an argument marked with the "nonnull" function attribute against null inside the function.
 
-Wnonnull-compare is included in -Wall. It can be disabled with the -Wno-nonnull-compare option.
-Wnull-dereference
Warn if the compiler detects paths that trigger erroneous or undefined behavior due to dereferencing a null pointer. This option is only active when -fdelete-null-pointer-checks is active, which is enabled by optimizations in most targets. The precision of the warnings depends on the optimization options used.
-Winit-self (C, C++, Objective-C and Objective-C++ only)
Warn about uninitialized variables that are initialized with themselves. Note this option can only be used with the -Wuninitialized option.
 
For example, GCC warns about "i" being uninitialized in the following snippet only when -Winit-self has been specified:
 
        int f()
        {
          int i = i;
          return i;
        }
    
 
This warning is enabled by -Wall in C++.
-Wimplicit-int (C and Objective-C only)
Warn when a declaration does not specify a type. This warning is enabled by -Wall.
-Wimplicit-function-declaration (C and Objective-C only)
Give a warning whenever a function is used before being declared. In C99 mode ( -std=c99 or -std=gnu99), this warning is enabled by default and it is made into an error by -pedantic-errors. This warning is also enabled by -Wall.
-Wimplicit (C and Objective-C only)
Same as -Wimplicit-int and -Wimplicit-function-declaration. This warning is enabled by -Wall.
-Wimplicit-fallthrough
-Wimplicit-fallthrough is the same as -Wimplicit-fallthrough=3 and -Wno-implicit-fallthrough is the same as -Wimplicit-fallthrough=0.
-Wimplicit-fallthrough=n
Warn when a switch case falls through. For example:
 
        switch (cond)
          {
          case 1:
            a = 1;
            break;
          case 2:
            a = 2;
          case 3:
            a = 3;
            break;
          }
    
 
This warning does not warn when the last statement of a case cannot fall through, e.g. when there is a return statement or a call to function declared with the noreturn attribute. -Wimplicit-fallthrough= also takes into account control flow statements, such as ifs, and only warns when appropriate. E.g.
 
        switch (cond)
          {
          case 1:
            if (i > 3) {
              bar (5);
              break;
            } else if (i < 1) {
              bar (0);
            } else
              return;
          default:
            ...
          }
    
 
Since there are occasions where a switch case fall through is desirable, GCC provides an attribute, "__attribute__ ((fallthrough))", that is to be used along with a null statement to suppress this warning that would normally occur:
 
        switch (cond)
          {
          case 1:
            bar (0);
            __attribute__ ((fallthrough));
          default:
            ...
          }
    
 
C++17 provides a standard way to suppress the -Wimplicit-fallthrough warning using "[[fallthrough]];" instead of the GNU attribute. In C++11 or C++14 users can use "[[gnu::fallthrough]];", which is a GNU extension. Instead of the these attributes, it is also possible to add a fallthrough comment to silence the warning. The whole body of the C or C++ style comment should match the given regular expressions listed below. The option argument n specifies what kind of comments are accepted:
*<-Wimplicit-fallthrough=0 disables the warning altogether.>
*<-Wimplicit-fallthrough=1 matches ".*" regular>
expression, any comment is used as fallthrough comment.
*<-Wimplicit-fallthrough=2 case insensitively matches>
".*falls?[ \t-]*thr(ough|u).*" regular expression.
*<-Wimplicit-fallthrough=3 case sensitively matches one of the>
following regular expressions:
*<"-fallthrough">
*<"@fallthrough@">
*<"lint -fallthrough[ \t]*">
*<"[ \t.!]*(ELSE,? |INTENTIONAL(LY)? )?FALL(S | |-)?THR(OUGH|U)[ \t.!]*(-[^\n\r]*)?">
*<"[ \t.!]*(Else,? |Intentional(ly)? )?Fall((s | |-)[Tt]|t)hr(ough|u)[ \t.!]*(-[^\n\r]*)?">
*<"[ \t.!]*([Ee]lse,? |[Ii]ntentional(ly)? )?fall(s | |-)?thr(ough|u)[ \t.!]*(-[^\n\r]*)?">
*<-Wimplicit-fallthrough=4 case sensitively matches one of the>
following regular expressions:
*<"-fallthrough">
*<"@fallthrough@">
*<"lint -fallthrough[ \t]*">
*<"[ \t]*FALLTHR(OUGH|U)[ \t]*">
*<-Wimplicit-fallthrough=5 doesn't recognize any comments as>
fallthrough comments, only attributes disable the warning.
 
The comment needs to be followed after optional whitespace and other comments by "case" or "default" keywords or by a user label that precedes some "case" or "default" label.
 
        switch (cond)
          {
          case 1:
            bar (0);
            /* FALLTHRU */
          default:
            ...
          }
 
The -Wimplicit-fallthrough=3 warning is enabled by -Wextra.
-Wignored-qualifiers (C and C++ only)
Warn if the return type of a function has a type qualifier such as "const". For ISO C such a type qualifier has no effect, since the value returned by a function is not an lvalue. For C++, the warning is only emitted for scalar types or "void". ISO C prohibits qualified "void" return types on function definitions, so such return types always receive a warning even without this option.
 
This warning is also enabled by -Wextra.
-Wignored-attributes (C and C++ only)
Warn when an attribute is ignored. This is different from the -Wattributes option in that it warns whenever the compiler decides to drop an attribute, not that the attribute is either unknown, used in a wrong place, etc. This warning is enabled by default.
-Wmain
Warn if the type of "main" is suspicious. "main" should be a function with external linkage, returning int, taking either zero arguments, two, or three arguments of appropriate types. This warning is enabled by default in C++ and is enabled by either -Wall or -Wpedantic.
-Wmisleading-indentation (C and C++ only)
Warn when the indentation of the code does not reflect the block structure. Specifically, a warning is issued for "if", "else", "while", and "for" clauses with a guarded statement that does not use braces, followed by an unguarded statement with the same indentation.
 
In the following example, the call to "bar" is misleadingly indented as if it were guarded by the "if" conditional.
 
          if (some_condition ())
            foo ();
            bar ();  /* Gotcha: this is not guarded by the "if".  */
    
 
In the case of mixed tabs and spaces, the warning uses the -ftabstop= option to determine if the statements line up (defaulting to 8).
 
The warning is not issued for code involving multiline preprocessor logic such as the following example.
 
          if (flagA)
            foo (0);
        #if SOME_CONDITION_THAT_DOES_NOT_HOLD
          if (flagB)
        #endif
            foo (1);
    
 
The warning is not issued after a "#line" directive, since this typically indicates autogenerated code, and no assumptions can be made about the layout of the file that the directive references.
 
This warning is enabled by -Wall in C and C++.
-Wmissing-braces
Warn if an aggregate or union initializer is not fully bracketed. In the following example, the initializer for "a" is not fully bracketed, but that for "b" is fully bracketed. This warning is enabled by -Wall in C.
 
        int a[2][2] = { 0, 1, 2, 3 };
        int b[2][2] = { { 0, 1 }, { 2, 3 } };
    
 
This warning is enabled by -Wall.
-Wmissing-include-dirs (C, C++, Objective-C and Objective-C++ only)
Warn if a user-supplied include directory does not exist.
-Wparentheses
Warn if parentheses are omitted in certain contexts, such as when there is an assignment in a context where a truth value is expected, or when operators are nested whose precedence people often get confused about.
 
Also warn if a comparison like "x<=y<=z" appears; this is equivalent to "(x<=y ? 1 : 0) <= z", which is a different interpretation from that of ordinary mathematical notation.
 
Also warn for dangerous uses of the GNU extension to "?:" with omitted middle operand. When the condition in the "?": operator is a boolean expression, the omitted value is always 1. Often programmers expect it to be a value computed inside the conditional expression instead.
 
This warning is enabled by -Wall.
-Wsequence-point
Warn about code that may have undefined semantics because of violations of sequence point rules in the C and C++ standards.
 
The C and C++ standards define the order in which expressions in a C/C++ program are evaluated in terms of sequence points, which represent a partial ordering between the execution of parts of the program: those executed before the sequence point, and those executed after it. These occur after the evaluation of a full expression (one which is not part of a larger expression), after the evaluation of the first operand of a "&&", "||", "? :" or "," (comma) operator, before a function is called (but after the evaluation of its arguments and the expression denoting the called function), and in certain other places. Other than as expressed by the sequence point rules, the order of evaluation of subexpressions of an expression is not specified. All these rules describe only a partial order rather than a total order, since, for example, if two functions are called within one expression with no sequence point between them, the order in which the functions are called is not specified. However, the standards committee have ruled that function calls do not overlap.
 
It is not specified when between sequence points modifications to the values of objects take effect. Programs whose behavior depends on this have undefined behavior; the C and C++ standards specify that "Between the previous and next sequence point an object shall have its stored value modified at most once by the evaluation of an expression. Furthermore, the prior value shall be read only to determine the value to be stored.". If a program breaks these rules, the results on any particular implementation are entirely unpredictable.
 
Examples of code with undefined behavior are "a = a++;", "a[n] = b[n++]" and "a[i++] = i;". Some more complicated cases are not diagnosed by this option, and it may give an occasional false positive result, but in general it has been found fairly effective at detecting this sort of problem in programs.
 
The C++17 standard will define the order of evaluation of operands in more cases: in particular it requires that the right-hand side of an assignment be evaluated before the left-hand side, so the above examples are no longer undefined. But this warning will still warn about them, to help people avoid writing code that is undefined in C and earlier revisions of C++.
 
The standard is worded confusingly, therefore there is some debate over the precise meaning of the sequence point rules in subtle cases. Links to discussions of the problem, including proposed formal definitions, may be found on the GCC readings page, at < http://gcc.gnu.org/readings.html>.
 
This warning is enabled by -Wall for C and C++.
-Wno-return-local-addr
Do not warn about returning a pointer (or in C++, a reference) to a variable that goes out of scope after the function returns.
-Wreturn-type
Warn whenever a function is defined with a return type that defaults to "int". Also warn about any "return" statement with no return value in a function whose return type is not "void" (falling off the end of the function body is considered returning without a value).
 
For C only, warn about a "return" statement with an expression in a function whose return type is "void", unless the expression type is also "void". As a GNU extension, the latter case is accepted without a warning unless -Wpedantic is used.
 
For C++, a function without return type always produces a diagnostic message, even when -Wno-return-type is specified. The only exceptions are "main" and functions defined in system headers.
 
This warning is enabled by -Wall.
-Wshift-count-negative
Warn if shift count is negative. This warning is enabled by default.
-Wshift-count-overflow
Warn if shift count >= width of type. This warning is enabled by default.
-Wshift-negative-value
Warn if left shifting a negative value. This warning is enabled by -Wextra in C99 and C++11 modes (and newer).
-Wshift-overflow
-Wshift-overflow=n
Warn about left shift overflows. This warning is enabled by default in C99 and C++11 modes (and newer).
-Wshift-overflow=1
This is the warning level of -Wshift-overflow and is enabled by default in C99 and C++11 modes (and newer). This warning level does not warn about left-shifting 1 into the sign bit. (However, in C, such an overflow is still rejected in contexts where an integer constant expression is required.)
-Wshift-overflow=2
This warning level also warns about left-shifting 1 into the sign bit, unless C++14 mode is active.
-Wswitch
Warn whenever a "switch" statement has an index of enumerated type and lacks a "case" for one or more of the named codes of that enumeration. (The presence of a "default" label prevents this warning.) "case" labels outside the enumeration range also provoke warnings when this option is used (even if there is a "default" label). This warning is enabled by -Wall.
-Wswitch-default
Warn whenever a "switch" statement does not have a "default" case.
-Wswitch-enum
Warn whenever a "switch" statement has an index of enumerated type and lacks a "case" for one or more of the named codes of that enumeration. "case" labels outside the enumeration range also provoke warnings when this option is used. The only difference between -Wswitch and this option is that this option gives a warning about an omitted enumeration code even if there is a "default" label.
-Wswitch-bool
Warn whenever a "switch" statement has an index of boolean type and the case values are outside the range of a boolean type. It is possible to suppress this warning by casting the controlling expression to a type other than "bool". For example:
 
        switch ((int) (a == 4))
          {
          ...
          }
    
 
This warning is enabled by default for C and C++ programs.
-Wswitch-unreachable
Warn whenever a "switch" statement contains statements between the controlling expression and the first case label, which will never be executed. For example:
 
        switch (cond)
          {
           i = 15;
          ...
           case 5:
          ...
          }
    
 
-Wswitch-unreachable does not warn if the statement between the controlling expression and the first case label is just a declaration:
 
        switch (cond)
          {
           int i;
          ...
           case 5:
           i = 5;
          ...
          }
    
 
This warning is enabled by default for C and C++ programs.
-Wsync-nand (C and C++ only)
Warn when "__sync_fetch_and_nand" and "__sync_nand_and_fetch" built-in functions are used. These functions changed semantics in GCC 4.4.
-Wunused-but-set-parameter
Warn whenever a function parameter is assigned to, but otherwise unused (aside from its declaration).
 
To suppress this warning use the "unused" attribute.
 
This warning is also enabled by -Wunused together with -Wextra.
-Wunused-but-set-variable
Warn whenever a local variable is assigned to, but otherwise unused (aside from its declaration). This warning is enabled by -Wall.
 
To suppress this warning use the "unused" attribute.
 
This warning is also enabled by -Wunused, which is enabled by -Wall.
-Wunused-function
Warn whenever a static function is declared but not defined or a non-inline static function is unused. This warning is enabled by -Wall.
-Wunused-label
Warn whenever a label is declared but not used. This warning is enabled by -Wall.
 
To suppress this warning use the "unused" attribute.
-Wunused-local-typedefs (C, Objective-C, C++ and Objective-C++ only)
Warn when a typedef locally defined in a function is not used. This warning is enabled by -Wall.
-Wunused-parameter
Warn whenever a function parameter is unused aside from its declaration.
 
To suppress this warning use the "unused" attribute.
-Wno-unused-result
Do not warn if a caller of a function marked with attribute "warn_unused_result" does not use its return value. The default is -Wunused-result.
-Wunused-variable
Warn whenever a local or static variable is unused aside from its declaration. This option implies -Wunused-const-variable=1 for C, but not for C++. This warning is enabled by -Wall.
 
To suppress this warning use the "unused" attribute.
-Wunused-const-variable
-Wunused-const-variable=n
Warn whenever a constant static variable is unused aside from its declaration. -Wunused-const-variable=1 is enabled by -Wunused-variable for C, but not for C++. In C this declares variable storage, but in C++ this is not an error since const variables take the place of "#define"s.
 
To suppress this warning use the "unused" attribute.
-Wunused-const-variable=1
This is the warning level that is enabled by -Wunused-variable for C. It warns only about unused static const variables defined in the main compilation unit, but not about static const variables declared in any header included.
-Wunused-const-variable=2
This warning level also warns for unused constant static variables in headers (excluding system headers). This is the warning level of -Wunused-const-variable and must be explicitly requested since in C++ this isn't an error and in C it might be harder to clean up all headers included.
-Wunused-value
Warn whenever a statement computes a result that is explicitly not used. To suppress this warning cast the unused expression to "void". This includes an expression-statement or the left-hand side of a comma expression that contains no side effects. For example, an expression such as "x[i,j]" causes a warning, while "x[(void)i,j]" does not.
 
This warning is enabled by -Wall.
-Wunused
All the above -Wunused options combined.
 
In order to get a warning about an unused function parameter, you must either specify -Wextra -Wunused (note that -Wall implies -Wunused), or separately specify -Wunused-parameter.
-Wuninitialized
Warn if an automatic variable is used without first being initialized or if a variable may be clobbered by a "setjmp" call. In C++, warn if a non-static reference or non-static "const" member appears in a class without constructors.
 
If you want to warn about code that uses the uninitialized value of the variable in its own initializer, use the -Winit-self option.
 
These warnings occur for individual uninitialized or clobbered elements of structure, union or array variables as well as for variables that are uninitialized or clobbered as a whole. They do not occur for variables or elements declared "volatile". Because these warnings depend on optimization, the exact variables or elements for which there are warnings depends on the precise optimization options and version of GCC used.
 
Note that there may be no warning about a variable that is used only to compute a value that itself is never used, because such computations may be deleted by data flow analysis before the warnings are printed.
-Winvalid-memory-model
Warn for invocations of __atomic Builtins, __sync Builtins, and the C11 atomic generic functions with a memory consistency argument that is either invalid for the operation or outside the range of values of the "memory_order" enumeration. For example, since the "__atomic_store" and "__atomic_store_n" built-ins are only defined for the relaxed, release, and sequentially consistent memory orders the following code is diagnosed:
 
        void store (int *i)
        {
          __atomic_store_n (i, 0, memory_order_consume);
        }
    
 
-Winvalid-memory-model is enabled by default.
-Wmaybe-uninitialized
For an automatic variable, if there exists a path from the function entry to a use of the variable that is initialized, but there exist some other paths for which the variable is not initialized, the compiler emits a warning if it cannot prove the uninitialized paths are not executed at run time. These warnings are made optional because GCC is not smart enough to see all the reasons why the code might be correct in spite of appearing to have an error. Here is one example of how this can happen:
 
        {
          int x;
          switch (y)
            {
            case 1: x = 1;
              break;
            case 2: x = 4;
              break;
            case 3: x = 5;
            }
          foo (x);
        }
    
 
If the value of "y" is always 1, 2 or 3, then "x" is always initialized, but GCC doesn't know this. To suppress the warning, you need to provide a default case with assert(0) or similar code.
 
This option also warns when a non-volatile automatic variable might be changed by a call to "longjmp". These warnings as well are possible only in optimizing compilation.
 
The compiler sees only the calls to "setjmp". It cannot know where "longjmp" will be called; in fact, a signal handler could call it at any point in the code. As a result, you may get a warning even when there is in fact no problem because "longjmp" cannot in fact be called at the place that would cause a problem.
 
Some spurious warnings can be avoided if you declare all the functions you use that never return as "noreturn".
 
This warning is enabled by -Wall or -Wextra.
-Wunknown-pragmas
Warn when a "#pragma" directive is encountered that is not understood by GCC. If this command-line option is used, warnings are even issued for unknown pragmas in system header files. This is not the case if the warnings are only enabled by the -Wall command-line option.
-Wno-pragmas
Do not warn about misuses of pragmas, such as incorrect parameters, invalid syntax, or conflicts between pragmas. See also -Wunknown-pragmas.
-Wstrict-aliasing
This option is only active when -fstrict-aliasing is active. It warns about code that might break the strict aliasing rules that the compiler is using for optimization. The warning does not catch all cases, but does attempt to catch the more common pitfalls. It is included in -Wall. It is equivalent to -Wstrict-aliasing=3
-Wstrict-aliasing=n
This option is only active when -fstrict-aliasing is active. It warns about code that might break the strict aliasing rules that the compiler is using for optimization. Higher levels correspond to higher accuracy (fewer false positives). Higher levels also correspond to more effort, similar to the way -O works. -Wstrict-aliasing is equivalent to -Wstrict-aliasing=3.
 
Level 1: Most aggressive, quick, least accurate. Possibly useful when higher levels do not warn but -fstrict-aliasing still breaks the code, as it has very few false negatives. However, it has many false positives. Warns for all pointer conversions between possibly incompatible types, even if never dereferenced. Runs in the front end only.
 
Level 2: Aggressive, quick, not too precise. May still have many false positives (not as many as level 1 though), and few false negatives (but possibly more than level 1). Unlike level 1, it only warns when an address is taken. Warns about incomplete types. Runs in the front end only.
 
Level 3 (default for -Wstrict-aliasing): Should have very few false positives and few false negatives. Slightly slower than levels 1 or 2 when optimization is enabled. Takes care of the common pun+dereference pattern in the front end: "*(int*)&some_float". If optimization is enabled, it also runs in the back end, where it deals with multiple statement cases using flow-sensitive points-to information. Only warns when the converted pointer is dereferenced. Does not warn about incomplete types.
-Wstrict-overflow
-Wstrict-overflow=n
This option is only active when -fstrict-overflow is active. It warns about cases where the compiler optimizes based on the assumption that signed overflow does not occur. Note that it does not warn about all cases where the code might overflow: it only warns about cases where the compiler implements some optimization. Thus this warning depends on the optimization level.
 
An optimization that assumes that signed overflow does not occur is perfectly safe if the values of the variables involved are such that overflow never does, in fact, occur. Therefore this warning can easily give a false positive: a warning about code that is not actually a problem. To help focus on important issues, several warning levels are defined. No warnings are issued for the use of undefined signed overflow when estimating how many iterations a loop requires, in particular when determining whether a loop will be executed at all.
-Wstrict-overflow=1
Warn about cases that are both questionable and easy to avoid. For example, with -fstrict-overflow, the compiler simplifies "x + 1 > x" to 1. This level of -Wstrict-overflow is enabled by -Wall; higher levels are not, and must be explicitly requested.
-Wstrict-overflow=2
Also warn about other cases where a comparison is simplified to a constant. For example: "abs (x) >= 0". This can only be simplified when -fstrict-overflow is in effect, because "abs (INT_MIN)" overflows to "INT_MIN", which is less than zero. -Wstrict-overflow (with no level) is the same as -Wstrict-overflow=2.
-Wstrict-overflow=3
Also warn about other cases where a comparison is simplified. For example: "x + 1 > 1" is simplified to "x > 0".
-Wstrict-overflow=4
Also warn about other simplifications not covered by the above cases. For example: "(x * 10) / 5" is simplified to "x * 2".
-Wstrict-overflow=5
Also warn about cases where the compiler reduces the magnitude of a constant involved in a comparison. For example: "x + 2 > y" is simplified to "x + 1 >= y". This is reported only at the highest warning level because this simplification applies to many comparisons, so this warning level gives a very large number of false positives.
-Wstringop-overflow
-Wstringop-overflow=type
Warn for calls to string manipulation functions such as "memcpy" and "strcpy" that are determined to overflow the destination buffer. The optional argument is one greater than the type of Object Size Checking to perform to determine the size of the destination. The argument is meaningful only for functions that operate on character arrays but not for raw memory functions like "memcpy" which always make use of Object Size type-0. The option also warns for calls that specify a size in excess of the largest possible object or at most "SIZE_MAX / 2" bytes. The option produces the best results with optimization enabled but can detect a small subset of simple buffer overflows even without optimization in calls to the GCC built-in functions like "__builtin_memcpy" that correspond to the standard functions. In any case, the option warns about just a subset of buffer overflows detected by the corresponding overflow checking built-ins. For example, the option will issue a warning for the "strcpy" call below because it copies at least 5 characters (the string "blue" including the terminating NUL) into the buffer of size 4.
 
        enum Color { blue, purple, yellow };
        const char* f (enum Color clr)
        {
          static char buf [4];
          const char *str;
          switch (clr)
            {
              case blue: str = "blue"; break;
              case purple: str = "purple"; break;
              case yellow: str = "yellow"; break;
            }
        
          return strcpy (buf, str);   // warning here
        }
    
 
Option -Wstringop-overflow=2 is enabled by default.
-Wstringop-overflow
-Wstringop-overflow=1
The -Wstringop-overflow=1 option uses type-zero Object Size Checking to determine the sizes of destination objects. This is the default setting of the option. At this setting the option will not warn for writes past the end of subobjects of larger objects accessed by pointers unless the size of the largest surrounding object is known. When the destination may be one of several objects it is assumed to be the largest one of them. On Linux systems, when optimization is enabled at this setting the option warns for the same code as when the "_FORTIFY_SOURCE" macro is defined to a non-zero value.
-Wstringop-overflow=2
The -Wstringop-overflow=2 option uses type-one Object Size Checking to determine the sizes of destination objects. At this setting the option will warn about overflows when writing to members of the largest complete objects whose exact size is known. It will, however, not warn for excessive writes to the same members of unknown objects referenced by pointers since they may point to arrays containing unknown numbers of elements.
-Wstringop-overflow=3
The -Wstringop-overflow=3 option uses type-two Object Size Checking to determine the sizes of destination objects. At this setting the option warns about overflowing the smallest object or data member. This is the most restrictive setting of the option that may result in warnings for safe code.
-Wstringop-overflow=4
The -Wstringop-overflow=4 option uses type-three Object Size Checking to determine the sizes of destination objects. At this setting the option will warn about overflowing any data members, and when the destination is one of several objects it uses the size of the largest of them to decide whether to issue a warning. Similarly to -Wstringop-overflow=3 this setting of the option may result in warnings for benign code.
-Wsuggest-attribute=[pure|const|noreturn|format]
Warn for cases where adding an attribute may be beneficial. The attributes currently supported are listed below.
-Wsuggest-attribute=pure
-Wsuggest-attribute=const
-Wsuggest-attribute=noreturn
Warn about functions that might be candidates for attributes "pure", "const" or "noreturn". The compiler only warns for functions visible in other compilation units or (in the case of "pure" and "const") if it cannot prove that the function returns normally. A function returns normally if it doesn't contain an infinite loop or return abnormally by throwing, calling "abort" or trapping. This analysis requires option -fipa-pure-const, which is enabled by default at -O and higher. Higher optimization levels improve the accuracy of the analysis.
-Wsuggest-attribute=format
-Wmissing-format-attribute
Warn about function pointers that might be candidates for "format" attributes. Note these are only possible candidates, not absolute ones. GCC guesses that function pointers with "format" attributes that are used in assignment, initialization, parameter passing or return statements should have a corresponding "format" attribute in the resulting type. I.e. the left-hand side of the assignment or initialization, the type of the parameter variable, or the return type of the containing function respectively should also have a "format" attribute to avoid the warning.
 
GCC also warns about function definitions that might be candidates for "format" attributes. Again, these are only possible candidates. GCC guesses that "format" attributes might be appropriate for any function that calls a function like "vprintf" or "vscanf", but this might not always be the case, and some functions for which "format" attributes are appropriate may not be detected.
-Wsuggest-final-types
Warn about types with virtual methods where code quality would be improved if the type were declared with the C++11 "final" specifier, or, if possible, declared in an anonymous namespace. This allows GCC to more aggressively devirtualize the polymorphic calls. This warning is more effective with link time optimization, where the information about the class hierarchy graph is more complete.
-Wsuggest-final-methods
Warn about virtual methods where code quality would be improved if the method were declared with the C++11 "final" specifier, or, if possible, its type were declared in an anonymous namespace or with the "final" specifier. This warning is more effective with link-time optimization, where the information about the class hierarchy graph is more complete. It is recommended to first consider suggestions of -Wsuggest-final-types and then rebuild with new annotations.
-Wsuggest-override
Warn about overriding virtual functions that are not marked with the override keyword.
-Walloc-zero
Warn about calls to allocation functions decorated with attribute "alloc_size" that specify zero bytes, including those to the built-in forms of the functions "aligned_alloc", "alloca", "calloc", "malloc", and "realloc". Because the behavior of these functions when called with a zero size differs among implementations (and in the case of "realloc" has been deprecated) relying on it may result in subtle portability bugs and should be avoided.
-Walloc-size-larger-than=n
Warn about calls to functions decorated with attribute "alloc_size" that attempt to allocate objects larger than the specified number of bytes, or where the result of the size computation in an integer type with infinite precision would exceed "SIZE_MAX / 2". The option argument n may end in one of the standard suffixes designating a multiple of bytes such as "kB" and "KiB" for kilobyte and kibibyte, respectively, "MB" and "MiB" for megabyte and mebibyte, and so on.
-Walloca
This option warns on all uses of "alloca" in the source.
-Walloca-larger-than=n
This option warns on calls to "alloca" that are not bounded by a controlling predicate limiting its argument of integer type to at most n bytes, or calls to "alloca" where the bound is unknown. Arguments of non-integer types are considered unbounded even if they appear to be constrained to the expected range.
 
For example, a bounded case of "alloca" could be:
 
        void func (size_t n)
        {
          void *p;
          if (n <= 1000)
            p = alloca (n);
          else
            p = malloc (n);
          f (p);
        }
    
 
In the above example, passing "-Walloca-larger-than=1000" would not issue a warning because the call to "alloca" is known to be at most 1000 bytes. However, if "-Walloca-larger-than=500" were passed, the compiler would emit a warning.
 
Unbounded uses, on the other hand, are uses of "alloca" with no controlling predicate constraining its integer argument. For example:
 
        void func ()
        {
          void *p = alloca (n);
          f (p);
        }
    
 
If "-Walloca-larger-than=500" were passed, the above would trigger a warning, but this time because of the lack of bounds checking.
 
Note, that even seemingly correct code involving signed integers could cause a warning:
 
        void func (signed int n)
        {
          if (n < 500)
            {
              p = alloca (n);
              f (p);
            }
        }
    
 
In the above example, n could be negative, causing a larger than expected argument to be implicitly cast into the "alloca" call.
 
This option also warns when "alloca" is used in a loop.
 
This warning is not enabled by -Wall, and is only active when -ftree-vrp is active (default for -O2 and above).
 
See also -Wvla-larger-than=n.
-Warray-bounds
-Warray-bounds=n
This option is only active when -ftree-vrp is active (default for -O2 and above). It warns about subscripts to arrays that are always out of bounds. This warning is enabled by -Wall.
-Warray-bounds=1
This is the warning level of -Warray-bounds and is enabled by -Wall; higher levels are not, and must be explicitly requested.
-Warray-bounds=2
This warning level also warns about out of bounds access for arrays at the end of a struct and for arrays accessed through pointers. This warning level may give a larger number of false positives and is deactivated by default.
-Wbool-compare
Warn about boolean expression compared with an integer value different from "true"/"false". For instance, the following comparison is always false:
 
        int n = 5;
        ...
        if ((n > 1) == 2) { ... }
    
 
This warning is enabled by -Wall.
-Wbool-operation
Warn about suspicious operations on expressions of a boolean type. For instance, bitwise negation of a boolean is very likely a bug in the program. For C, this warning also warns about incrementing or decrementing a boolean, which rarely makes sense. (In C++, decrementing a boolean is always invalid. Incrementing a boolean is invalid in C++1z, and deprecated otherwise.)
 
This warning is enabled by -Wall.
-Wduplicated-branches
Warn when an if-else has identical branches. This warning detects cases like
 
        if (p != NULL)
          return 0;
        else
          return 0;
    
 
It doesn't warn when both branches contain just a null statement. This warning also warn for conditional operators:
 
          int i = x ? *p : *p;
    
-Wduplicated-cond
Warn about duplicated conditions in an if-else-if chain. For instance, warn for the following code:
 
        if (p->q != NULL) { ... }
        else if (p->q != NULL) { ... }
    
-Wframe-address
Warn when the __builtin_frame_address or __builtin_return_address is called with an argument greater than 0. Such calls may return indeterminate values or crash the program. The warning is included in -Wall.
-Wno-discarded-qualifiers (C and Objective-C only)
Do not warn if type qualifiers on pointers are being discarded. Typically, the compiler warns if a "const char *" variable is passed to a function that takes a "char *" parameter. This option can be used to suppress such a warning.
-Wno-discarded-array-qualifiers (C and Objective-C only)
Do not warn if type qualifiers on arrays which are pointer targets are being discarded. Typically, the compiler warns if a "const int (*)[]" variable is passed to a function that takes a "int (*)[]" parameter. This option can be used to suppress such a warning.
-Wno-incompatible-pointer-types (C and Objective-C only)
Do not warn when there is a conversion between pointers that have incompatible types. This warning is for cases not covered by -Wno-pointer-sign, which warns for pointer argument passing or assignment with different signedness.
-Wno-int-conversion (C and Objective-C only)
Do not warn about incompatible integer to pointer and pointer to integer conversions. This warning is about implicit conversions; for explicit conversions the warnings -Wno-int-to-pointer-cast and -Wno-pointer-to-int-cast may be used.
-Wno-div-by-zero
Do not warn about compile-time integer division by zero. Floating-point division by zero is not warned about, as it can be a legitimate way of obtaining infinities and NaNs.
-Wsystem-headers
Print warning messages for constructs found in system header files. Warnings from system headers are normally suppressed, on the assumption that they usually do not indicate real problems and would only make the compiler output harder to read. Using this command-line option tells GCC to emit warnings from system headers as if they occurred in user code. However, note that using -Wall in conjunction with this option does not warn about unknown pragmas in system headers---for that, -Wunknown-pragmas must also be used.
-Wtautological-compare
Warn if a self-comparison always evaluates to true or false. This warning detects various mistakes such as:
 
        int i = 1;
        ...
        if (i > i) { ... }
    
 
This warning is enabled by -Wall.
-Wtrampolines
Warn about trampolines generated for pointers to nested functions. A trampoline is a small piece of data or code that is created at run time on the stack when the address of a nested function is taken, and is used to call the nested function indirectly. For some targets, it is made up of data only and thus requires no special treatment. But, for most targets, it is made up of code and thus requires the stack to be made executable in order for the program to work properly.
-Wfloat-equal
Warn if floating-point values are used in equality comparisons.
 
The idea behind this is that sometimes it is convenient (for the programmer) to consider floating-point values as approximations to infinitely precise real numbers. If you are doing this, then you need to compute (by analyzing the code, or in some other way) the maximum or likely maximum error that the computation introduces, and allow for it when performing comparisons (and when producing output, but that's a different problem). In particular, instead of testing for equality, you should check to see whether the two values have ranges that overlap; and this is done with the relational operators, so equality comparisons are probably mistaken.
-Wtraditional (C and Objective-C only)
Warn about certain constructs that behave differently in traditional and ISO C. Also warn about ISO C constructs that have no traditional C equivalent, and/or problematic constructs that should be avoided.
*
Macro parameters that appear within string literals in the macro body. In traditional C macro replacement takes place within string literals, but in ISO C it does not.
*
In traditional C, some preprocessor directives did not exist. Traditional preprocessors only considered a line to be a directive if the # appeared in column 1 on the line. Therefore -Wtraditional warns about directives that traditional C understands but ignores because the # does not appear as the first character on the line. It also suggests you hide directives like "#pragma" not understood by traditional C by indenting them. Some traditional implementations do not recognize "#elif", so this option suggests avoiding it altogether.
*
A function-like macro that appears without arguments.
*
The unary plus operator.
*
The U integer constant suffix, or the F or L floating-point constant suffixes. (Traditional C does support the L suffix on integer constants.) Note, these suffixes appear in macros defined in the system headers of most modern systems, e.g. the _MIN/ _MAX macros in "<limits.h>". Use of these macros in user code might normally lead to spurious warnings, however GCC's integrated preprocessor has enough context to avoid warning in these cases.
*
A function declared external in one block and then used after the end of the block.
*
A "switch" statement has an operand of type "long".
*
A non-"static" function declaration follows a "static" one. This construct is not accepted by some traditional C compilers.
*
The ISO type of an integer constant has a different width or signedness from its traditional type. This warning is only issued if the base of the constant is ten. I.e. hexadecimal or octal values, which typically represent bit patterns, are not warned about.
*
Usage of ISO string concatenation is detected.
*
Initialization of automatic aggregates.
*
Identifier conflicts with labels. Traditional C lacks a separate namespace for labels.
*
Initialization of unions. If the initializer is zero, the warning is omitted. This is done under the assumption that the zero initializer in user code appears conditioned on e.g. "__STDC__" to avoid missing initializer warnings and relies on default initialization to zero in the traditional C case.
*
Conversions by prototypes between fixed/floating-point values and vice versa. The absence of these prototypes when compiling with traditional C causes serious problems. This is a subset of the possible conversion warnings; for the full set use -Wtraditional-conversion.
*
Use of ISO C style function definitions. This warning intentionally is not issued for prototype declarations or variadic functions because these ISO C features appear in your code when using libiberty's traditional C compatibility macros, "PARAMS" and "VPARAMS". This warning is also bypassed for nested functions because that feature is already a GCC extension and thus not relevant to traditional C compatibility.
-Wtraditional-conversion (C and Objective-C only)
Warn if a prototype causes a type conversion that is different from what would happen to the same argument in the absence of a prototype. This includes conversions of fixed point to floating and vice versa, and conversions changing the width or signedness of a fixed-point argument except when the same as the default promotion.
-Wdeclaration-after-statement (C and Objective-C only)
Warn when a declaration is found after a statement in a block. This construct, known from C++, was introduced with ISO C99 and is by default allowed in GCC. It is not supported by ISO C90.
-Wshadow
Warn whenever a local variable or type declaration shadows another variable, parameter, type, class member (in C++), or instance variable (in Objective-C) or whenever a built-in function is shadowed. Note that in C++, the compiler warns if a local variable shadows an explicit typedef, but not if it shadows a struct/class/enum. Same as -Wshadow=global.
-Wno-shadow-ivar (Objective-C only)
Do not warn whenever a local variable shadows an instance variable in an Objective-C method.
-Wshadow=global
The default for -Wshadow. Warns for any (global) shadowing.
-Wshadow=local
Warn when a local variable shadows another local variable or parameter. This warning is enabled by -Wshadow=global.
-Wshadow=compatible-local
Warn when a local variable shadows another local variable or parameter whose type is compatible with that of the shadowing variable. In C++, type compatibility here means the type of the shadowing variable can be converted to that of the shadowed variable. The creation of this flag (in addition to -Wshadow=local) is based on the idea that when a local variable shadows another one of incompatible type, it is most likely intentional, not a bug or typo, as shown in the following example:
 
        for (SomeIterator i = SomeObj.begin(); i != SomeObj.end(); ++i)
        {
          for (int i = 0; i < N; ++i)
          {
            ...
          }
          ...
        }
    
 
Since the two variable "i" in the example above have incompatible types, enabling only -Wshadow=compatible-local will not emit a warning. Because their types are incompatible, if a programmer accidentally uses one in place of the other, type checking will catch that and emit an error or warning. So not warning (about shadowing) in this case will not lead to undetected bugs. Use of this flag instead of -Wshadow=local can possibly reduce the number of warnings triggered by intentional shadowing.
 
This warning is enabled by -Wshadow=local.
-Wlarger-than=len
Warn whenever an object of larger than len bytes is defined.
-Wframe-larger-than=len
Warn if the size of a function frame is larger than len bytes. The computation done to determine the stack frame size is approximate and not conservative. The actual requirements may be somewhat greater than len even if you do not get a warning. In addition, any space allocated via "alloca", variable-length arrays, or related constructs is not included by the compiler when determining whether or not to issue a warning.
-Wno-free-nonheap-object
Do not warn when attempting to free an object that was not allocated on the heap.
-Wstack-usage=len
Warn if the stack usage of a function might be larger than len bytes. The computation done to determine the stack usage is conservative. Any space allocated via "alloca", variable-length arrays, or related constructs is included by the compiler when determining whether or not to issue a warning.
 
The message is in keeping with the output of -fstack-usage.
*
If the stack usage is fully static but exceeds the specified amount, it's:
 
          warning: stack usage is 1120 bytes
    
*
If the stack usage is (partly) dynamic but bounded, it's:
 
          warning: stack usage might be 1648 bytes
    
*
If the stack usage is (partly) dynamic and not bounded, it's:
 
          warning: stack usage might be unbounded
    
-Wunsafe-loop-optimizations
Warn if the loop cannot be optimized because the compiler cannot assume anything on the bounds of the loop indices. With -funsafe-loop-optimizations warn if the compiler makes such assumptions.
-Wno-pedantic-ms-format (MinGW targets only)
When used in combination with -Wformat and -pedantic without GNU extensions, this option disables the warnings about non-ISO "printf" / "scanf" format width specifiers "I32", "I64", and "I" used on Windows targets, which depend on the MS runtime.
-Waligned-new
Warn about a new-expression of a type that requires greater alignment than the "alignof(std::max_align_t)" but uses an allocation function without an explicit alignment parameter. This option is enabled by -Wall.
 
Normally this only warns about global allocation functions, but -Waligned-new=all also warns about class member allocation functions.
-Wplacement-new
-Wplacement-new=n
Warn about placement new expressions with undefined behavior, such as constructing an object in a buffer that is smaller than the type of the object. For example, the placement new expression below is diagnosed because it attempts to construct an array of 64 integers in a buffer only 64 bytes large.
 
        char buf [64];
        new (buf) int[64];
    
 
This warning is enabled by default.
-Wplacement-new=1
This is the default warning level of -Wplacement-new. At this level the warning is not issued for some strictly undefined constructs that GCC allows as extensions for compatibility with legacy code. For example, the following "new" expression is not diagnosed at this level even though it has undefined behavior according to the C++ standard because it writes past the end of the one-element array.
 
        struct S { int n, a[1]; };
        S *s = (S *)malloc (sizeof *s + 31 * sizeof s->a[0]);
        new (s->a)int [32]();
    
-Wplacement-new=2
At this level, in addition to diagnosing all the same constructs as at level 1, a diagnostic is also issued for placement new expressions that construct an object in the last member of structure whose type is an array of a single element and whose size is less than the size of the object being constructed. While the previous example would be diagnosed, the following construct makes use of the flexible member array extension to avoid the warning at level 2.
 
        struct S { int n, a[]; };
        S *s = (S *)malloc (sizeof *s + 32 * sizeof s->a[0]);
        new (s->a)int [32]();
    
-Wpointer-arith
Warn about anything that depends on the "size of" a function type or of "void". GNU C assigns these types a size of 1, for convenience in calculations with "void *" pointers and pointers to functions. In C++, warn also when an arithmetic operation involves "NULL". This warning is also enabled by -Wpedantic.
-Wpointer-compare
Warn if a pointer is compared with a zero character constant. This usually means that the pointer was meant to be dereferenced. For example:
 
        const char *p = foo ();
        if (p == '\0')
          return 42;
    
 
Note that the code above is invalid in C++11.
 
This warning is enabled by default.
-Wtype-limits
Warn if a comparison is always true or always false due to the limited range of the data type, but do not warn for constant expressions. For example, warn if an unsigned variable is compared against zero with "<" or ">=". This warning is also enabled by -Wextra.
-Wcomment
-Wcomments
Warn whenever a comment-start sequence /* appears in a /* comment, or whenever a backslash-newline appears in a // comment. This warning is enabled by -Wall.
-Wtrigraphs
Warn if any trigraphs are encountered that might change the meaning of the program. Trigraphs within comments are not warned about, except those that would form escaped newlines.
 
This option is implied by -Wall. If -Wall is not given, this option is still enabled unless trigraphs are enabled. To get trigraph conversion without warnings, but get the other -Wall warnings, use -trigraphs -Wall -Wno-trigraphs.
-Wundef
Warn if an undefined identifier is evaluated in an "#if" directive. Such identifiers are replaced with zero.
-Wexpansion-to-defined
Warn whenever defined is encountered in the expansion of a macro (including the case where the macro is expanded by an #if directive). Such usage is not portable. This warning is also enabled by -Wpedantic and -Wextra.
-Wunused-macros
Warn about macros defined in the main file that are unused. A macro is used if it is expanded or tested for existence at least once. The preprocessor also warns if the macro has not been used at the time it is redefined or undefined.
 
Built-in macros, macros defined on the command line, and macros defined in include files are not warned about.
 
Note: If a macro is actually used, but only used in skipped conditional blocks, then the preprocessor reports it as unused. To avoid the warning in such a case, you might improve the scope of the macro's definition by, for example, moving it into the first skipped block. Alternatively, you could provide a dummy use with something like:
 
        #if defined the_macro_causing_the_warning
        #endif
    
-Wno-endif-labels
Do not warn whenever an "#else" or an "#endif" are followed by text. This sometimes happens in older programs with code of the form
 
        #if FOO
        ...
        #else FOO
        ...
        #endif FOO
    
 
The second and third "FOO" should be in comments. This warning is on by default.
-Wbad-function-cast (C and Objective-C only)
Warn when a function call is cast to a non-matching type. For example, warn if a call to a function returning an integer type is cast to a pointer type.
-Wc90-c99-compat (C and Objective-C only)
Warn about features not present in ISO C90, but present in ISO C99. For instance, warn about use of variable length arrays, "long long" type, "bool" type, compound literals, designated initializers, and so on. This option is independent of the standards mode. Warnings are disabled in the expression that follows "__extension__".
-Wc99-c11-compat (C and Objective-C only)
Warn about features not present in ISO C99, but present in ISO C11. For instance, warn about use of anonymous structures and unions, "_Atomic" type qualifier, "_Thread_local" storage-class specifier, "_Alignas" specifier, "Alignof" operator, "_Generic" keyword, and so on. This option is independent of the standards mode. Warnings are disabled in the expression that follows "__extension__".
-Wc++-compat (C and Objective-C only)
Warn about ISO C constructs that are outside of the common subset of ISO C and ISO C++, e.g. request for implicit conversion from "void *" to a pointer to non-"void" type.
-Wc++11-compat (C++ and Objective-C++ only)
Warn about C++ constructs whose meaning differs between ISO C++ 1998 and ISO C++ 2011, e.g., identifiers in ISO C++ 1998 that are keywords in ISO C++ 2011. This warning turns on -Wnarrowing and is enabled by -Wall.
-Wc++14-compat (C++ and Objective-C++ only)
Warn about C++ constructs whose meaning differs between ISO C++ 2011 and ISO C++ 2014. This warning is enabled by -Wall.
-Wc++1z-compat (C++ and Objective-C++ only)
Warn about C++ constructs whose meaning differs between ISO C++ 2014 and the forthoming ISO C++ 2017(?). This warning is enabled by -Wall.
-Wcast-qual
Warn whenever a pointer is cast so as to remove a type qualifier from the target type. For example, warn if a "const char *" is cast to an ordinary "char *".
 
Also warn when making a cast that introduces a type qualifier in an unsafe way. For example, casting "char **" to "const char **" is unsafe, as in this example:
 
          /* p is char ** value.  */
          const char **q = (const char **) p;
          /* Assignment of readonly string to const char * is OK.  */
          *q = "string";
          /* Now char** pointer points to read-only memory.  */
          **p = 'b';
    
-Wcast-align
Warn whenever a pointer is cast such that the required alignment of the target is increased. For example, warn if a "char *" is cast to an "int *" on machines where integers can only be accessed at two- or four-byte boundaries.
-Wwrite-strings
When compiling C, give string constants the type "const char[ length]" so that copying the address of one into a non-"const" "char *" pointer produces a warning. These warnings help you find at compile time code that can try to write into a string constant, but only if you have been very careful about using "const" in declarations and prototypes. Otherwise, it is just a nuisance. This is why we did not make -Wall request these warnings.
 
When compiling C++, warn about the deprecated conversion from string literals to "char *". This warning is enabled by default for C++ programs.
-Wclobbered
Warn for variables that might be changed by "longjmp" or "vfork". This warning is also enabled by -Wextra.
-Wconditionally-supported (C++ and Objective-C++ only)
Warn for conditionally-supported (C++11 [intro.defs]) constructs.
-Wconversion
Warn for implicit conversions that may alter a value. This includes conversions between real and integer, like "abs (x)" when "x" is "double"; conversions between signed and unsigned, like "unsigned ui = -1"; and conversions to smaller types, like "sqrtf (M_PI)". Do not warn for explicit casts like "abs ((int) x)" and "ui = (unsigned) -1", or if the value is not changed by the conversion like in "abs (2.0)". Warnings about conversions between signed and unsigned integers can be disabled by using -Wno-sign-conversion.
 
For C++, also warn for confusing overload resolution for user-defined conversions; and conversions that never use a type conversion operator: conversions to "void", the same type, a base class or a reference to them. Warnings about conversions between signed and unsigned integers are disabled by default in C++ unless -Wsign-conversion is explicitly enabled.
-Wno-conversion-null (C++ and Objective-C++ only)
Do not warn for conversions between "NULL" and non-pointer types. -Wconversion-null is enabled by default.
-Wzero-as-null-pointer-constant (C++ and Objective-C++ only)
Warn when a literal 0 is used as null pointer constant. This can be useful to facilitate the conversion to "nullptr" in C++11.
-Wsubobject-linkage (C++ and Objective-C++ only)
Warn if a class type has a base or a field whose type uses the anonymous namespace or depends on a type with no linkage. If a type A depends on a type B with no or internal linkage, defining it in multiple translation units would be an ODR violation because the meaning of B is different in each translation unit. If A only appears in a single translation unit, the best way to silence the warning is to give it internal linkage by putting it in an anonymous namespace as well. The compiler doesn't give this warning for types defined in the main .C file, as those are unlikely to have multiple definitions. -Wsubobject-linkage is enabled by default.
-Wdangling-else
Warn about constructions where there may be confusion to which "if" statement an "else" branch belongs. Here is an example of such a case:
 
        {
          if (a)
            if (b)
              foo ();
          else
            bar ();
        }
    
 
In C/C++, every "else" branch belongs to the innermost possible "if" statement, which in this example is "if (b)". This is often not what the programmer expected, as illustrated in the above example by indentation the programmer chose. When there is the potential for this confusion, GCC issues a warning when this flag is specified. To eliminate the warning, add explicit braces around the innermost "if" statement so there is no way the "else" can belong to the enclosing "if". The resulting code looks like this:
 
        {
          if (a)
            {
              if (b)
                foo ();
              else
                bar ();
            }
        }
    
 
This warning is enabled by -Wparentheses.
-Wdate-time
Warn when macros "__TIME__", "__DATE__" or "__TIMESTAMP__" are encountered as they might prevent bit-wise-identical reproducible compilations.
-Wdelete-incomplete (C++ and Objective-C++ only)
Warn when deleting a pointer to incomplete type, which may cause undefined behavior at runtime. This warning is enabled by default.
-Wuseless-cast (C++ and Objective-C++ only)
Warn when an expression is casted to its own type.
-Wempty-body
Warn if an empty body occurs in an "if", "else" or "do while" statement. This warning is also enabled by -Wextra.
-Wenum-compare
Warn about a comparison between values of different enumerated types. In C++ enumerated type mismatches in conditional expressions are also diagnosed and the warning is enabled by default. In C this warning is enabled by -Wall.
-Wjump-misses-init (C, Objective-C only)
Warn if a "goto" statement or a "switch" statement jumps forward across the initialization of a variable, or jumps backward to a label after the variable has been initialized. This only warns about variables that are initialized when they are declared. This warning is only supported for C and Objective-C; in C++ this sort of branch is an error in any case.
 
-Wjump-misses-init is included in -Wc++-compat. It can be disabled with the -Wno-jump-misses-init option.
-Wsign-compare
Warn when a comparison between signed and unsigned values could produce an incorrect result when the signed value is converted to unsigned. In C++, this warning is also enabled by -Wall. In C, it is also enabled by -Wextra.
-Wsign-conversion
Warn for implicit conversions that may change the sign of an integer value, like assigning a signed integer expression to an unsigned integer variable. An explicit cast silences the warning. In C, this option is enabled also by -Wconversion.
-Wfloat-conversion
Warn for implicit conversions that reduce the precision of a real value. This includes conversions from real to integer, and from higher precision real to lower precision real values. This option is also enabled by -Wconversion.
-Wno-scalar-storage-order
Do not warn on suspicious constructs involving reverse scalar storage order.
-Wsized-deallocation (C++ and Objective-C++ only)
Warn about a definition of an unsized deallocation function
 
        void operator delete (void *) noexcept;
        void operator delete[] (void *) noexcept;
    
 
without a definition of the corresponding sized deallocation function
 
        void operator delete (void *, std::size_t) noexcept;
        void operator delete[] (void *, std::size_t) noexcept;
    
 
or vice versa. Enabled by -Wextra along with -fsized-deallocation.
-Wsizeof-pointer-memaccess
Warn for suspicious length parameters to certain string and memory built-in functions if the argument uses "sizeof". This warning warns e.g. about "memset (ptr, 0, sizeof (ptr));" if "ptr" is not an array, but a pointer, and suggests a possible fix, or about "memcpy (&foo, ptr, sizeof (&foo));". This warning is enabled by -Wall.
-Wsizeof-array-argument
Warn when the "sizeof" operator is applied to a parameter that is declared as an array in a function definition. This warning is enabled by default for C and C++ programs.
-Wmemset-elt-size
Warn for suspicious calls to the "memset" built-in function, if the first argument references an array, and the third argument is a number equal to the number of elements, but not equal to the size of the array in memory. This indicates that the user has omitted a multiplication by the element size. This warning is enabled by -Wall.
-Wmemset-transposed-args
Warn for suspicious calls to the "memset" built-in function, if the second argument is not zero and the third argument is zero. This warns e.g.@ about "memset (buf, sizeof buf, 0)" where most probably "memset (buf, 0, sizeof buf)" was meant instead. The diagnostics is only emitted if the third argument is literal zero. If it is some expression that is folded to zero, a cast of zero to some type, etc., it is far less likely that the user has mistakenly exchanged the arguments and no warning is emitted. This warning is enabled by -Wall.
-Waddress
Warn about suspicious uses of memory addresses. These include using the address of a function in a conditional expression, such as "void func(void); if (func)", and comparisons against the memory address of a string literal, such as "if (x == "abc")". Such uses typically indicate a programmer error: the address of a function always evaluates to true, so their use in a conditional usually indicate that the programmer forgot the parentheses in a function call; and comparisons against string literals result in unspecified behavior and are not portable in C, so they usually indicate that the programmer intended to use "strcmp". This warning is enabled by -Wall.
-Wlogical-op
Warn about suspicious uses of logical operators in expressions. This includes using logical operators in contexts where a bit-wise operator is likely to be expected. Also warns when the operands of a logical operator are the same:
 
        extern int a;
        if (a < 0 && a < 0) { ... }
    
-Wlogical-not-parentheses
Warn about logical not used on the left hand side operand of a comparison. This option does not warn if the right operand is considered to be a boolean expression. Its purpose is to detect suspicious code like the following:
 
        int a;
        ...
        if (!a > 1) { ... }
    
 
It is possible to suppress the warning by wrapping the LHS into parentheses:
 
        if ((!a) > 1) { ... }
    
 
This warning is enabled by -Wall.
-Waggregate-return
Warn if any functions that return structures or unions are defined or called. (In languages where you can return an array, this also elicits a warning.)
-Wno-aggressive-loop-optimizations
Warn if in a loop with constant number of iterations the compiler detects undefined behavior in some statement during one or more of the iterations.
-Wno-attributes
Do not warn if an unexpected "__attribute__" is used, such as unrecognized attributes, function attributes applied to variables, etc. This does not stop errors for incorrect use of supported attributes.
-Wno-builtin-declaration-mismatch
Warn if a built-in function is declared with the wrong signature. This warning is enabled by default.
-Wno-builtin-macro-redefined
Do not warn if certain built-in macros are redefined. This suppresses warnings for redefinition of "__TIMESTAMP__", "__TIME__", "__DATE__", "__FILE__", and "__BASE_FILE__".
-Wstrict-prototypes (C and Objective-C only)
Warn if a function is declared or defined without specifying the argument types. (An old-style function definition is permitted without a warning if preceded by a declaration that specifies the argument types.)
-Wold-style-declaration (C and Objective-C only)
Warn for obsolescent usages, according to the C Standard, in a declaration. For example, warn if storage-class specifiers like "static" are not the first things in a declaration. This warning is also enabled by -Wextra.
-Wold-style-definition (C and Objective-C only)
Warn if an old-style function definition is used. A warning is given even if there is a previous prototype.
-Wmissing-parameter-type (C and Objective-C only)
A function parameter is declared without a type specifier in K&R-style functions:
 
        void foo(bar) { }
    
 
This warning is also enabled by -Wextra.
-Wmissing-prototypes (C and Objective-C only)
Warn if a global function is defined without a previous prototype declaration. This warning is issued even if the definition itself provides a prototype. Use this option to detect global functions that do not have a matching prototype declaration in a header file. This option is not valid for C++ because all function declarations provide prototypes and a non-matching declaration declares an overload rather than conflict with an earlier declaration. Use -Wmissing-declarations to detect missing declarations in C++.
-Wmissing-declarations
Warn if a global function is defined without a previous