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BUSYBOX(1) busybox BUSYBOX(1)


BusyBox - The Swiss Army Knife of Embedded Linux


 busybox <applet> [arguments...]  # or
 <applet> [arguments...]          # if symlinked


BusyBox combines tiny versions of many common UNIX utilities into a single small executable. It provides minimalist replacements for most of the utilities you usually find in GNU coreutils, util-linux, etc. The utilities in BusyBox generally have fewer options than their full-featured GNU cousins; however, the options that are included provide the expected functionality and behave very much like their GNU counterparts.
BusyBox has been written with size-optimization and limited resources in mind. It is also extremely modular so you can easily include or exclude commands (or features) at compile time. This makes it easy to customize your embedded systems. To create a working system, just add /dev, /etc, and a Linux kernel. BusyBox provides a fairly complete POSIX environment for any small or embedded system.
BusyBox is extremely configurable. This allows you to include only the components you need, thereby reducing binary size. Run 'make config' or 'make menuconfig' to select the functionality that you wish to enable. Then run 'make' to compile BusyBox using your configuration.
After the compile has finished, you should use 'make install' to install BusyBox. This will install the 'bin/busybox' binary, in the target directory specified by CONFIG_PREFIX. CONFIG_PREFIX can be set when configuring BusyBox, or you can specify an alternative location at install time (i.e., with a command line like 'make CONFIG_PREFIX=/tmp/foo install'). If you enabled any applet installation scheme (either as symlinks or hardlinks), these will also be installed in the location pointed to by CONFIG_PREFIX.


BusyBox is a multi-call binary. A multi-call binary is an executable program that performs the same job as more than one utility program. That means there is just a single BusyBox binary, but that single binary acts like a large number of utilities. This allows BusyBox to be smaller since all the built-in utility programs (we call them applets) can share code for many common operations.
You can also invoke BusyBox by issuing a command as an argument on the command line. For example, entering
        /bin/busybox ls
will also cause BusyBox to behave as 'ls'.
Of course, adding '/bin/busybox' into every command would be painful. So most people will invoke BusyBox using links to the BusyBox binary.
For example, entering
        ln -s /bin/busybox ls
will cause BusyBox to behave as 'ls' (if the 'ls' command has been compiled into BusyBox). Generally speaking, you should never need to make all these links yourself, as the BusyBox build system will do this for you when you run the 'make install' command.
If you invoke BusyBox with no arguments, it will provide you with a list of the applets that have been compiled into your BusyBox binary.


Most BusyBox applets support the --help argument to provide a terse runtime description of their behavior. If the CONFIG_FEATURE_VERBOSE_USAGE option has been enabled, more detailed usage information will also be available.


Currently available applets include:
        [, [[, acpid, addgroup, adduser, adjtimex, ar, arch, arp, arping,
        ash, awk, base64, basename, bbconfig, beep, blkdiscard, blkid,
        blockdev, bootchartd, brctl, bunzip2, busybox, bzcat, bzip2, cal,
        cat, chat, chattr, chgrp, chmod, chown, chpasswd, chpst, chroot,
        chrt, chvt, cksum, clear, cmp, comm, cp, cpio, crond, crontab,
        cryptpw, cttyhack, cut, date, dc, dd, deallocvt, delgroup, deluser,
        depmod, df, dhcprelay, diff, dirname, dmesg, dnsd, dnsdomainname,
        dos2unix, du, dumpkmap, dumpleases, echo, ed, egrep, eject, env,
        envdir, envuidgid, ether-wake, expand, expr, factor, fakeidentd,
        fallocate, false, fatattr, fbset, fbsplash, fdflush, fdformat,
        fdisk, fgconsole, fgrep, find, findfs, flock, fold, free,
        freeramdisk, fsck, fsck.minix, fsfreeze, fstrim, fsync, ftpd,
        ftpget, ftpput, fuser, getopt, getty, grep, groups, gunzip, gzip,
        halt, hd, hdparm, head, hexdump, hexedit, hostid, hostname, httpd,
        hwclock, i2cdetect, i2cdump, i2cget, i2cset, id, ifconfig, ifdown,
        ifenslave, ifplugd, ifup, inetd, init, inotifyd, insmod, install,
        ionice, iostat, ip, ipaddr, ipcalc, ipcrm, ipcs, iplink, ipneigh,
        iproute, iprule, iptunnel, kbd_mode, kill, killall, killall5, klogd,
        less, link, linux32, linux64, linuxrc, ln, loadfont, loadkmap,
        logger, login, logname, logread, losetup, lpd, lpq, lpr, ls, lsattr,
        lsmod, lsof, lspci, lsscsi, lsusb, lzcat, lzma, lzopcat, makedevs,
        makemime, man, md5sum, mdev, mesg, microcom, mkdir, mkdosfs, mke2fs,
        mkfifo, mkfs.ext2, mkfs.minix, mkfs.vfat, mknod, mkpasswd, mkswap,
        mktemp, modinfo, modprobe, more, mount, mountpoint, mpstat, mt, mv,
        nameif, nbd-client, nc, netstat, nice, nl, nmeter, nohup, nproc,
        nsenter, nslookup, ntpd, od, openvt, partprobe, passwd, paste,
        patch, pgrep, pidof, ping, ping6, pipe_progress, pivot_root, pkill,
        pmap, popmaildir, poweroff, powertop, printenv, printf, ps, pscan,
        pstree, pwd, pwdx, raidautorun, rdate, rdev, readahead, readlink,
        readprofile, realpath, reboot, reformime, renice, reset, resize,
        resume, rev, rfkill, rm, rmdir, rmmod, route, rpm2cpio, rtcwake,
        run-init, run-parts, runsv, runsvdir, rx, script, scriptreplay, sed,
        sendmail, seq, setarch, setconsole, setfattr, setfont, setkeycodes,
        setlogcons, setpriv, setserial, setsid, setuidgid, sh, sha1sum,
        sha256sum, sha3sum, sha512sum, showkey, shred, shuf, slattach,
        sleep, smemcap, softlimit, sort, split, ssl_client,
        start-stop-daemon, stat, strings, stty, su, sulogin, sum, sv, svc,
        svlogd, svok, swapoff, swapon, switch_root, sync, sysctl, syslogd,
        tac, tail, tar, taskset, tc, tcpsvd, tee, telnet, telnetd, test,
        tftp, tftpd, time, timeout, top, touch, tr, traceroute, traceroute6,
        true, truncate, tty, ttysize, tunctl, tune2fs, ubiattach, ubidetach,
        ubimkvol, ubirename, ubirmvol, ubirsvol, ubiupdatevol, udhcpc,
        udhcpc6, udhcpd, udpsvd, uevent, umount, uname, uncompress,
        unexpand, uniq, unix2dos, unlink, unlzma, unlzop, unshare, unxz,
        unzip, uptime, usleep, uudecode, uuencode, vconfig, vi, vlock,
        volname, watch, watchdog, wc, wget, which, whoami, whois, xargs,
        xxd, xz, xzcat, yes, zcat, zcip


Listen to ACPI events and spawn specific helpers on event arrival
        -d      Log to stderr, not log file (implies -f)
        -f      Run in foreground
        -c DIR  Config directory [/etc/acpi]
        -e FILE /proc event file [/proc/acpi/event]
        -l FILE Log file [/var/log/acpid.log]
        -p FILE Pid file [/var/run/]
        -a FILE Action file [/etc/acpid.conf]
        -M FILE Map file [/etc/]
Accept and ignore compatibility options -g -m -s -S -v
addgroup [-g GID] [-S] [USER] GROUP
Add a group or add a user to a group
        -g GID  Group id
        -S      Create a system group
Create new user, or add USER to GROUP
        -h DIR          Home directory
        -g GECOS        GECOS field
        -s SHELL        Login shell
        -G GRP          Group
        -S              Create a system user
        -D              Don't assign a password
        -H              Don't create home directory
        -u UID          User id
        -k SKEL         Skeleton directory (/etc/skel)
adjtimex [-q] [-o OFF] [-f FREQ] [-p TCONST] [-t TICK]
Read or set kernel time variables. See adjtimex(2)
        -q      Quiet
        -o OFF  Time offset, microseconds
        -f FREQ Frequency adjust, integer kernel units (65536 is 1ppm)
        -t TICK Microseconds per tick, usually 10000
                (positive -t or -f values make clock run faster)
        -p TCONST
ar [-o] [-v] [-p] [-t] [-x] ARCHIVE FILES
Extract or list FILES from an ar archive
        -o      Preserve original dates
        -p      Extract to stdout
        -t      List
        -x      Extract
        -v      Verbose
Print system architecture
arp [-vn] [-H HWTYPE] [-i IF] -a [HOSTNAME] [-v] [-i IF] -d HOSTNAME [pub] [-v] [-H HWTYPE] [-i IF] -s HOSTNAME HWADDR [temp] [-v] [-H HWTYPE] [-i IF] -s HOSTNAME HWADDR [netmask MASK] pub [-v] [-H HWTYPE] [-i IF] -Ds HOSTNAME IFACE [netmask MASK] pub
Manipulate ARP cache
        -a              Display (all) hosts
        -d              Delete ARP entry
        -s              Set new entry
        -v              Verbose
        -n              Don't resolve names
        -i IF           Network interface
        -D              Read HWADDR from IFACE
        -A,-p AF        Protocol family
        -H HWTYPE       Hardware address type
arping [-fqbDUA] [-c CNT] [-w TIMEOUT] [-I IFACE] [-s SRC_IP] DST_IP
Send ARP requests/replies
        -f              Quit on first ARP reply
        -q              Quiet
        -b              Keep broadcasting, don't go unicast
        -D              Exit with 1 if DST_IP replies
        -U              Unsolicited ARP mode, update your neighbors
        -A              ARP answer mode, update your neighbors
        -c N            Stop after sending N ARP requests
        -w TIMEOUT      Seconds to wait for ARP reply
        -I IFACE        Interface to use (default eth0)
        -s SRC_IP       Sender IP address
        DST_IP          Target IP address
ash [-/+OPTIONS] [-/+o OPT]... [-c 'SCRIPT' [ARG0 [ARGS]] / FILE [ARGS] / -s [ARGS]]
Unix shell interpreter
        -v VAR=VAL      Set variable
        -F SEP          Use SEP as field separator
        -f FILE         Read program from FILE
        -e AWK_PROGRAM
base64 [-d] [FILE]
Base64 encode or decode FILE to standard output -d Decode data
basename FILE [SUFFIX]
Strip directory path and .SUFFIX from FILE
Print the config file used by busybox build
beep -f FREQ -l LEN -d DELAY -r COUNT -n
        -f      Frequency in Hz
        -l      Length in ms
        -d      Delay in ms
        -r      Repetitions
        -n      Start new tone
blkdiscard [-o OFS] [-l LEN] [-s] DEVICE
Discard sectors on DEVICE
        -o OFS  Byte offset into device
        -l LEN  Number of bytes to discard
        -s      Perform a secure discard
blkid [BLOCKDEV]...
Print UUIDs of all filesystems
        --setro         Set ro
        --setrw         Set rw
        --getro         Get ro
        --getss         Get sector size
        --getbsz        Get block size
        --setbsz BYTES  Set block size
        --getsz         Get device size in 512-byte sectors
        --getsize64     Get device size in bytes
        --flushbufs     Flush buffers
        --rereadpt      Reread partition table
bootchartd start [PROG ARGS]|stop|init
Create /var/log/bootchart.tgz with boot chart data
start: start background logging; with PROG, run PROG, then kill logging with USR1 stop: send USR1 to all bootchartd processes init: start background logging; stop when getty/xdm is seen (for init scripts) Under PID 1: as init, then exec $bootchart_init, /init, /sbin/init
Manage ethernet bridges
        show                    Show a list of bridges
        addbr BRIDGE            Create BRIDGE
        delbr BRIDGE            Delete BRIDGE
        addif BRIDGE IFACE      Add IFACE to BRIDGE
        delif BRIDGE IFACE      Delete IFACE from BRIDGE
        setageing BRIDGE TIME           Set ageing time
        setfd BRIDGE TIME               Set bridge forward delay
        sethello BRIDGE TIME            Set hello time
        setmaxage BRIDGE TIME           Set max message age
        setpathcost BRIDGE COST         Set path cost
        setportprio BRIDGE PRIO         Set port priority
        setbridgeprio BRIDGE PRIO       Set bridge priority
        stp BRIDGE [1/yes/on|0/no/off]  STP on/off
bunzip2 [-cfk] [FILE]...
Decompress FILEs (or stdin)
        -c      Write to stdout
        -f      Force
        -k      Keep input files
bzcat [FILE]...
Decompress to stdout
bzip2 [OPTIONS] [FILE]...
Compress FILEs (or stdin) with bzip2 algorithm
        -1..9   Compression level
        -d      Decompress
        -t      Test file integrity
        -c      Write to stdout
        -f      Force
        -k      Keep input files
cal [-jy] [[MONTH] YEAR]
Display a calendar
        -j      Use julian dates
        -y      Display the entire year
cat [-nbvteA] [FILE]...
Print FILEs to stdout
        -n      Number output lines
        -b      Number nonempty lines
        -v      Show nonprinting characters as ^x or M-x
        -t      ...and tabs as ^I
        -e      ...and end lines with $
        -A      Same as -vte
Useful for interacting with a modem connected to stdin/stdout. A script consists of "expect-send" argument pairs. Example:
chat '' ATZ OK ATD123456 CONNECT '' ogin: pppuser word: ppppass '~'
chattr [-R] [-v VERSION] [-+=AacDdijsStTu] FILE...
Change ext2 file attributes
        -R      Recurse
        -v VER  Set version/generation number
        -,+,=   Remove/add/set attributes
        A       Don't track atime
        a       Append mode only
        c       Enable compress
        D       Write dir contents synchronously
        d       Don't backup with dump
        i       Cannot be modified (immutable)
        j       Write all data to journal first
        s       Zero disk storage when deleted
        S       Write synchronously
        t       Disable tail-merging of partial blocks with other files
        u       Allow file to be undeleted
chgrp [-RhLHPcvf]... GROUP FILE...
Change the group membership of each FILE to GROUP
        -R      Recurse
        -h      Affect symlinks instead of symlink targets
        -L      Traverse all symlinks to directories
        -H      Traverse symlinks on command line only
        -P      Don't traverse symlinks (default)
        -c      List changed files
        -v      Verbose
        -f      Hide errors
chmod [-Rcvf] MODE[,MODE]... FILE...
Each MODE is one or more of the letters ugoa, one of the symbols +-= and one or more of the letters rwxst
        -R      Recurse
        -c      List changed files
        -v      List all files
        -f      Hide errors
chown [-RhLHPcvf]... USER[:[GRP]] FILE...
Change the owner and/or group of each FILE to USER and/or GRP
        -R      Recurse
        -h      Affect symlinks instead of symlink targets
        -L      Traverse all symlinks to directories
        -H      Traverse symlinks on command line only
        -P      Don't traverse symlinks (default)
        -c      List changed files
        -v      List all files
        -f      Hide errors
chpasswd [--md5|--encrypted|--crypt-method]
Read user:password from stdin and update /etc/passwd
        -e,--encrypted          Supplied passwords are in encrypted form
        -m,--md5                Eencrypt using md5, not des
        -c,--crypt-method ALG   des,md5,sha256/512 (default des)
chpst [-vP012] [-u USER[:GRP]] [-U USER[:GRP]] [-e DIR] [-/ DIR] [-n NICE] [-m BYTES] [-d BYTES] [-o N] [-p N] [-f BYTES] [-c BYTES] PROG ARGS
Change the process state, run PROG
        -u USER[:GRP]   Set uid and gid
        -U USER[:GRP]   Set $UID and $GID in environment
        -e DIR          Set environment variables as specified by files
                        in DIR: file=1st_line_of_file
        -/ DIR          Chroot to DIR
        -n NICE         Add NICE to nice value
        -m BYTES        Same as -d BYTES -s BYTES -l BYTES
        -d BYTES        Limit data segment
        -o N            Limit number of open files per process
        -p N            Limit number of processes per uid
        -f BYTES        Limit output file sizes
        -c BYTES        Limit core file size
        -v              Verbose
        -P              Create new process group
        -0              Close stdin
        -1              Close stdout
        -2              Close stderr
Run PROG with root directory set to NEWROOT
chrt [-prfombi] [PRIO] [PID | PROG ARGS]
Change scheduling priority and class for a process
        -p      Operate on PID
        -r      Set SCHED_RR class
        -f      Set SCHED_FIFO class
        -o      Set SCHED_OTHER class
        -b      Set SCHED_BATCH class
        -i      Set SCHED_IDLE class
        -m      Show min/max priorities
chvt N
Change the foreground virtual terminal to /dev/ttyN
cksum FILE...
Calculate the CRC32 checksums of FILEs
Clear screen
cmp [-l] [-s] FILE1 [FILE2 [SKIP1 [SKIP2]]]
Compare FILE1 with FILE2 (or stdin)
        -l      Write the byte numbers (decimal) and values (octal)
                for all differing bytes
        -s      Quiet
comm [-123] FILE1 FILE2
Compare FILE1 with FILE2
        -1      Suppress lines unique to FILE1
        -2      Suppress lines unique to FILE2
        -3      Suppress lines common to both files
Copy SOURCE(s) to DEST
        -a      Same as -dpR
        -R,-r   Recurse
        -d,-P   Preserve symlinks (default if -R)
        -L      Follow all symlinks
        -H      Follow symlinks on command line
        -p      Preserve file attributes if possible
        -f      Overwrite
        -i      Prompt before overwrite
        -l,-s   Create (sym)links
        -T      Treat DEST as a normal file
        -u      Copy only newer files
cpio [-dmvu] [-F FILE] [-R USER[:GRP]] [-H newc] [-tio] [EXTR_FILE]...
Extract (-i) or list (-t) files from a cpio archive, or take file list from stdin and create an archive (-o)
Main operation mode:
        -t      List
        -i      Extract EXTR_FILEs (or all)
        -o      Create (requires -H newc)
        -d      Make leading directories
        -m      Preserve mtime
        -v      Verbose
        -u      Overwrite
        -F FILE Input (-t,-i,-p) or output (-o) file
        -R USER[:GRP]   Set owner of created files
        -H newc Archive format
crond -fbS -l N -d N -L LOGFILE -c DIR
        -f      Foreground
        -b      Background (default)
        -S      Log to syslog (default)
        -l N    Set log level. Most verbose 0, default 8
        -d N    Set log level, log to stderr
        -L FILE Log to FILE
        -c DIR  Cron dir. Default:/var/spool/cron/crontabs
crontab [-c DIR] [-u USER] [-ler]|[FILE]
        -c      Crontab directory
        -u      User
        -l      List crontab
        -e      Edit crontab
        -r      Delete crontab
        FILE    Replace crontab by FILE ('-': stdin)
Print crypt(3) hashed PASSWORD
        -P,--password-fd N      Read password from fd N
        -m,--method TYPE        des,md5,sha256/512 (default des)
        -S,--salt SALT
cttyhack [PROG ARGS]
Give PROG a controlling tty if possible. Example for /etc/inittab (for busybox init): ::respawn:/bin/cttyhack /bin/sh Giving controlling tty to shell running with PID 1: $ exec cttyhack sh Starting interactive shell from boot shell script:
        setsid cttyhack sh
cut [OPTIONS] [FILE]...
Print selected fields from each input FILE to stdout
        -b LIST Output only bytes from LIST
        -c LIST Output only characters from LIST
        -d CHAR Use CHAR instead of tab as the field delimiter
        -s      Output only the lines containing delimiter
        -f N    Print only these fields
        -n      Ignored
date [OPTIONS] [+FMT] [TIME]
Display time (using +FMT), or set time
        [-s,--set] TIME Set time to TIME
        -u,--utc        Work in UTC (don't convert to local time)
        -R,--rfc-2822   Output RFC-2822 compliant date string
        -I[SPEC]        Output ISO-8601 compliant date string
                        SPEC='date' (default) for date only,
                        'hours', 'minutes', or 'seconds' for date and
                        time to the indicated precision
        -r,--reference FILE     Display last modification time of FILE
        -d,--date TIME  Display TIME, not 'now'
        -D FMT          Use FMT for -d TIME conversion
Recognized TIME formats:
        YYYY-MM-DD hh:mm[:ss]
        'date TIME' form accepts MMDDhhmm[[YY]YY][.ss] instead
Tiny RPN calculator. Operations: +, add, -, sub, *, mul, /, div, %, mod, **, exp, and, or, not, xor, p - print top of the stack (without popping), f - print entire stack, o - pop the value and set output radix (must be 10, 16, 8 or 2). Examples: 'dc 2 2 add p' -> 4, 'dc 8 8 mul 2 2 + / p' -> 16
dd [if=FILE] [of=FILE] [ibs=N] [obs=N] [bs=N] [count=N] [skip=N] [seek=N] [conv=notrunc|noerror|sync|fsync] [iflag=skip_bytes|fullblock]
Copy a file with converting and formatting
        if=FILE         Read from FILE instead of stdin
        of=FILE         Write to FILE instead of stdout
        bs=N            Read and write N bytes at a time
        ibs=N           Read N bytes at a time
        obs=N           Write N bytes at a time
        count=N         Copy only N input blocks
        skip=N          Skip N input blocks
        seek=N          Skip N output blocks
        conv=notrunc    Don't truncate output file
        conv=noerror    Continue after read errors
        conv=sync       Pad blocks with zeros
        conv=fsync      Physically write data out before finishing
        conv=swab       Swap every pair of bytes
        iflag=skip_bytes        skip=N is in bytes
        iflag=fullblock Read full blocks
        status=noxfer   Suppress rate output
        status=none     Suppress all output
N may be suffixed by c (1), w (2), b (512), kB (1000), k (1024), MB, M, GB, G
deallocvt [N]
Deallocate unused virtual terminal /dev/ttyN
delgroup [USER] GROUP
Delete group GROUP from the system or user USER from group GROUP
deluser [--remove-home] USER
Delete USER from the system
depmod [-n]
        -n      Dry run: print file to stdout
df [-PkmhTai] [-B SIZE] [FILESYSTEM]...
Print filesystem usage statistics
        -P      POSIX output format
        -k      1024-byte blocks (default)
        -m      1M-byte blocks
        -h      Human readable (e.g. 1K 243M 2G)
        -T      Print filesystem type
        -a      Show all filesystems
        -i      Inodes
        -B SIZE Blocksize
Relay DHCP requests between clients and server
diff [-abBdiNqrTstw] [-L LABEL] [-S FILE] [-U LINES] FILE1 FILE2
Compare files line by line and output the differences between them. This implementation supports unified diffs only.
        -a      Treat all files as text
        -b      Ignore changes in the amount of whitespace
        -B      Ignore changes whose lines are all blank
        -d      Try hard to find a smaller set of changes
        -i      Ignore case differences
        -L      Use LABEL instead of the filename in the unified header
        -N      Treat absent files as empty
        -q      Output only whether files differ
        -r      Recurse
        -S      Start with FILE when comparing directories
        -T      Make tabs line up by prefixing a tab when necessary
        -s      Report when two files are the same
        -t      Expand tabs to spaces in output
        -U      Output LINES lines of context
        -w      Ignore all whitespace
dirname FILENAME
Strip non-directory suffix from FILENAME
dmesg [-c] [-n LEVEL] [-s SIZE]
Print or control the kernel ring buffer
        -c              Clear ring buffer after printing
        -n LEVEL        Set console logging level
        -s SIZE         Buffer size
        -r              Print raw message buffer
dnsd [-dvs] [-c CONFFILE] [-t TTL_SEC] [-p PORT] [-i ADDR]
Small static DNS server daemon
        -c FILE Config file
        -t SEC  TTL
        -p PORT Listen on PORT
        -i ADDR Listen on ADDR
        -d      Daemonize
        -v      Verbose
        -s      Send successful replies only. Use this if you want
                to use /etc/resolv.conf with two nameserver lines:
                        nameserver DNSD_SERVER
                        nameserver NORMAL_DNS_SERVER
dos2unix [-ud] [FILE]
Convert FILE in-place from DOS to Unix format. When no file is given, use stdin/stdout.
        -u      dos2unix
        -d      unix2dos
du [-aHLdclsxhmk] [FILE]...
Summarize disk space used for each FILE and/or directory
        -a      Show file sizes too
        -L      Follow all symlinks
        -H      Follow symlinks on command line
        -d N    Limit output to directories (and files with -a) of depth < N
        -c      Show grand total
        -l      Count sizes many times if hard linked
        -s      Display only a total for each argument
        -x      Skip directories on different filesystems
        -h      Sizes in human readable format (e.g., 1K 243M 2G)
        -m      Sizes in megabytes
        -k      Sizes in kilobytes (default)
dumpkmap > keymap
Print a binary keyboard translation table to stdout
dumpleases [-r|-a] [-d] [-f LEASEFILE]
Display DHCP leases granted by udhcpd
        -f,--file FILE  Lease file
        -r,--remaining  Show remaining time
        -a,--absolute   Show expiration time
        -d,--decimal    Show time in seconds
echo [-neE] [ARG]...
Print the specified ARGs to stdout
        -n      Suppress trailing newline
        -e      Interpret backslash escapes (i.e., \t=tab)
        -E      Don't interpret backslash escapes (default)
ed [FILE]
eject [-t] [-T] [DEVICE]
Eject DEVICE or default /dev/cdrom
        -s      SCSI device
        -t      Close tray
        -T      Open/close tray (toggle)
env [-iu] [-] [name=value]... [PROG ARGS]
Print the current environment or run PROG after setting up the specified environment
        -, -i   Start with an empty environment
        -u      Remove variable from the environment
Set various environment variables as specified by files in the directory DIR, run PROG
envuidgid USER PROG ARGS
Set $UID to USER's uid and $GID to USER's gid, run PROG
ether-wake [-b] [-i IFACE] [-p aa:bb:cc:dd[:ee:ff]/a.b.c.d] MAC
Send a magic packet to wake up sleeping machines. MAC must be a station address (00:11:22:33:44:55) or a hostname with a known 'ethers' entry.
        -b              Broadcast the packet
        -i IFACE        Interface to use (default eth0)
        -p PASSWORD     Append four or six byte PASSWORD to the packet
expand [-i] [-t N] [FILE]...
Convert tabs to spaces, writing to stdout
        -i      Don't convert tabs after non blanks
        -t      Tabstops every N chars
Print the value of EXPRESSION to stdout
        ARG1 | ARG2     ARG1 if it is neither null nor 0, otherwise ARG2
        ARG1 & ARG2     ARG1 if neither argument is null or 0, otherwise 0
        ARG1 < ARG2     1 if ARG1 is less than ARG2, else 0. Similarly:
        ARG1 <= ARG2
        ARG1 = ARG2
        ARG1 != ARG2
        ARG1 >= ARG2
        ARG1 > ARG2
        ARG1 + ARG2     Sum of ARG1 and ARG2. Similarly:
        ARG1 - ARG2
        ARG1 * ARG2
        ARG1 / ARG2
        ARG1 % ARG2
        STRING : REGEXP         Anchored pattern match of REGEXP in STRING
        match STRING REGEXP     Same as STRING : REGEXP
        substr STRING POS LENGTH Substring of STRING, POS counted from 1
        index STRING CHARS      Index in STRING where any CHARS is found, or 0
        length STRING           Length of STRING
        quote TOKEN             Interpret TOKEN as a string, even if
                                it is a keyword like 'match' or an
                                operator like '/'
        (EXPRESSION)            Value of EXPRESSION
Beware that many operators need to be escaped or quoted for shells. Comparisons are arithmetic if both ARGs are numbers, else lexicographical. Pattern matches return the string matched between \( and \) or null; if \( and \) are not used, they return the number of characters matched or 0.
factor [NUMBER]...
Print prime factors
fakeidentd [-fiw] [-b ADDR] [STRING]
Provide fake ident (auth) service
        -f      Run in foreground
        -i      Inetd mode
        -w      Inetd 'wait' mode
        -b ADDR Bind to specified address
        STRING  Ident answer string (default: nobody)
fallocate [-o OFS] -l LEN FILE
Preallocate space for FILE
        -o OFS  Offset of range
        -l LEN  Length of range
fatattr [-+rhsvda] FILE...
Change file attributes on FAT filesystem
        -       Clear attributes
        +       Set attributes
        r       Read only
        h       Hidden
        s       System
        v       Volume label
        d       Directory
        a       Archive
fbset [OPTIONS] [MODE]
Show and modify frame buffer settings
fbsplash -s IMGFILE [-c] [-d DEV] [-i INIFILE] [-f CMD]
        -s      Image
        -c      Hide cursor
        -d      Framebuffer device (default /dev/fb0)
        -i      Config file (var=value):
        -f      Control pipe (else exit after drawing image)
                        commands: 'NN' (% for progress bar) or 'exit'
fdflush DEVICE
Force floppy disk drive to detect disk change
fdformat [-n] DEVICE
Format floppy disk
        -n      Don't verify after format
fdisk [-ul] [-C CYLINDERS] [-H HEADS] [-S SECTORS] [-b SSZ] DISK
Change partition table
        -u              Start and End are in sectors (instead of cylinders)
        -l              Show partition table for each DISK, then exit
        -b 2048         (for certain MO disks) use 2048-byte sectors
        -C CYLINDERS    Set number of cylinders/heads/sectors
        -H HEADS        Typically 255
        -S SECTORS      Typically 63
Get active console
find [-HL] [PATH]... [OPTIONS] [ACTIONS]
Search for files and perform actions on them. First failed action stops processing of current file. Defaults: PATH is current directory, action is '-print'
        -L,-follow      Follow symlinks
        -H              ...on command line only
        -xdev           Don't descend directories on other filesystems
        -maxdepth N     Descend at most N levels. -maxdepth 0 applies
                        actions to command line arguments only
        -mindepth N     Don't act on first N levels
        -depth          Act on directory *after* traversing it
        ( ACTIONS )     Group actions for -o / -a
        ! ACT           Invert ACT's success/failure
        ACT1 [-a] ACT2  If ACT1 fails, stop, else do ACT2
        ACT1 -o ACT2    If ACT1 succeeds, stop, else do ACT2
                        Note: -a has higher priority than -o
        -name PATTERN   Match file name (w/o directory name) to PATTERN
        -iname PATTERN  Case insensitive -name
        -path PATTERN   Match path to PATTERN
        -ipath PATTERN  Case insensitive -path
        -regex PATTERN  Match path to regex PATTERN
        -type X         File type is X (one of: f,d,l,b,c,s,p)
        -perm MASK      At least one mask bit (+MASK), all bits (-MASK),
                        or exactly MASK bits are set in file's mode
        -mtime DAYS     mtime is greater than (+N), less than (-N),
                        or exactly N days in the past
        -mmin MINS      mtime is greater than (+N), less than (-N),
                        or exactly N minutes in the past
        -newer FILE     mtime is more recent than FILE's
        -inum N         File has inode number N
        -user NAME/ID   File is owned by given user
        -group NAME/ID  File is owned by given group
        -size N[bck]    File size is N (c:bytes,k:kbytes,b:512 bytes(def.))
                        +/-N: file size is bigger/smaller than N
        -links N        Number of links is greater than (+N), less than (-N),
                        or exactly N
        -prune          If current file is directory, don't descend into it
If none of the following actions is specified, -print is assumed
        -print          Print file name
        -print0         Print file name, NUL terminated
        -exec CMD ARG ; Run CMD with all instances of {} replaced by
                        file name. Fails if CMD exits with nonzero
        -exec CMD ARG + Run CMD with {} replaced by list of file names
        -delete         Delete current file/directory. Turns on -depth option
findfs LABEL=label or UUID=uuid
Find a filesystem device based on a label or UUID
flock [-sxun] FD|{FILE [-c] PROG ARGS}
[Un]lock file descriptor, or lock FILE, run PROG
        -s      Shared lock
        -x      Exclusive lock (default)
        -u      Unlock FD
        -n      Fail rather than wait
fold [-bs] [-w WIDTH] [FILE]...
Wrap input lines in each FILE (or stdin), writing to stdout
        -b      Count bytes rather than columns
        -s      Break at spaces
        -w      Use WIDTH columns instead of 80
free [-b/k/m/g]
Display the amount of free and used system memory
freeramdisk DEVICE
Free all memory used by the specified ramdisk
Check and repair filesystems
        -A      Walk /etc/fstab and check all filesystems
        -N      Don't execute, just show what would be done
        -P      With -A, check filesystems in parallel
        -R      With -A, skip the root filesystem
        -T      Don't show title on startup
        -V      Verbose
        -t TYPE List of filesystem types to check
fsck.minix [-larvsmf] BLOCKDEV
Check MINIX filesystem
        -l      List all filenames
        -r      Perform interactive repairs
        -a      Perform automatic repairs
        -v      Verbose
        -s      Output superblock information
        -m      Show "mode not cleared" warnings
        -f      Force file system check
fsfreeze --[un]freeze MOUNTPOINT
Flush and halt writes to MOUNTPOINT
        -o,--offset OFFSET      Offset in bytes to discard from
        -l,--length LEN         Bytes to discard
        -m,--minimum MIN        Minimum extent length
        -v,--verbose            Print number of discarded bytes
fsync [-d] FILE...
Write files' buffered blocks to disk
        -d      Avoid syncing metadata
ftpd [-wvS] [-a USER] [-t N] [-T N] [DIR]
FTP server. Chroots to DIR, if this fails (run by non-root), cds to it. Should be used as inetd service, inetd.conf line: 21 stream tcp nowait root ftpd ftpd /files/to/serve Can be run from tcpsvd:
        tcpsvd -vE 21 ftpd /files/to/serve
        -w      Allow upload
        -A      No login required, client access occurs under ftpd's UID
        -a USER Enable 'anonymous' login and map it to USER
        -v      Log errors to stderr. -vv: verbose log
        -S      Log errors to syslog. -SS: verbose log
        -t,-T N Idle and absolute timeout
Download a file via FTP
        -c      Continue previous transfer
        -v      Verbose
        -u USER Username
        -p PASS Password
        -P NUM  Port
Upload a file to a FTP server
        -v      Verbose
        -u USER Username
        -p PASS Password
        -P NUM  Port number
Find processes which use FILEs or PORTs
        -m      Find processes which use same fs as FILEs
        -4,-6   Search only IPv4/IPv6 space
        -s      Don't display PIDs
        -k      Kill found processes
        -SIGNAL Signal to send (default: KILL)
        -a              Allow long options starting with single -
        -l LOPT[,...]   Long options to recognize
        -n PROGNAME     The name under which errors are reported
        -o OPTSTRING    Short options to recognize
        -q              No error messages on unrecognized options
        -Q              No normal output
        -s SHELL        Set shell quoting conventions
        -T              Version test (exits with 4)
        -u              Don't quote output
O=`getopt -l bb: -- ab:c:: "$@"` || exit 1 eval set -- "$O" while true; do case "$1" in -a) echo A; shift;; -b|--bb) echo "B:'$2'"; shift 2;; -c) case "$2" in "") echo C; shift 2;; *) echo "C:'$2'"; shift 2;; esac;; --) shift; break;; *) echo Error; exit 1;; esac done
Open TTY, prompt for login name, then invoke /bin/login
        -h              Enable hardware RTS/CTS flow control
        -L              Set CLOCAL (ignore Carrier Detect state)
        -m              Get baud rate from modem's CONNECT status message
        -n              Don't prompt for login name
        -w              Wait for CR or LF before sending /etc/issue
        -i              Don't display /etc/issue
        -f ISSUE_FILE   Display ISSUE_FILE instead of /etc/issue
        -l LOGIN        Invoke LOGIN instead of /bin/login
        -t SEC          Terminate after SEC if no login name is read
        -I INITSTR      Send INITSTR before anything else
        -H HOST         Log HOST into the utmp file as the hostname
BAUD_RATE of 0 leaves it unchanged
grep [-HhnlLoqvsriwFE] [-m N] [-A/B/C N] PATTERN/-e PATTERN.../-f FILE [FILE]...
Search for PATTERN in FILEs (or stdin)
        -H      Add 'filename:' prefix
        -h      Do not add 'filename:' prefix
        -n      Add 'line_no:' prefix
        -l      Show only names of files that match
        -L      Show only names of files that don't match
        -c      Show only count of matching lines
        -o      Show only the matching part of line
        -q      Quiet. Return 0 if PATTERN is found, 1 otherwise
        -v      Select non-matching lines
        -s      Suppress open and read errors
        -r      Recurse
        -i      Ignore case
        -w      Match whole words only
        -x      Match whole lines only
        -F      PATTERN is a literal (not regexp)
        -E      PATTERN is an extended regexp
        -m N    Match up to N times per file
        -A N    Print N lines of trailing context
        -B N    Print N lines of leading context
        -C N    Same as '-A N -B N'
        -e PTRN Pattern to match
        -f FILE Read pattern from file
groups [USER]
Print the group memberships of USER or for the current process
gunzip [-cfkt] [FILE]...
Decompress FILEs (or stdin)
        -c      Write to stdout
        -f      Force
        -k      Keep input files
        -t      Test file integrity
gzip [-cfkdt123456789] [FILE]...
Compress FILEs (or stdin)
        -1..9   Compression level
        -d      Decompress
        -t      Test file integrity
        -c      Write to stdout
        -f      Force
        -k      Keep input files
halt [-d DELAY] [-n] [-f]
Halt the system
        -d SEC  Delay interval
        -n      Do not sync
        -f      Force (don't go through init)
hd FILE...
hd is an alias for hexdump -C
        -a      Get/set fs readahead
        -A      Set drive read-lookahead flag (0/1)
        -b      Get/set bus state (0 == off, 1 == on, 2 == tristate)
        -B      Set Advanced Power Management setting (1-255)
        -c      Get/set IDE 32-bit IO setting
        -C      Check IDE power mode status
        -d      Get/set using_dma flag
        -D      Enable/disable drive defect-mgmt
        -f      Flush buffer cache for device on exit
        -g      Display drive geometry
        -h      Display terse usage information
        -i      Display drive identification
        -I      Detailed/current information directly from drive
        -k      Get/set keep_settings_over_reset flag (0/1)
        -K      Set drive keep_features_over_reset flag (0/1)
        -L      Set drive doorlock (0/1) (removable harddisks only)
        -m      Get/set multiple sector count
        -n      Get/set ignore-write-errors flag (0/1)
        -p      Set PIO mode on IDE interface chipset (0,1,2,3,4,...)
        -P      Set drive prefetch count
        -Q      Get/set DMA tagged-queuing depth (if supported)
        -r      Get/set readonly flag (DANGEROUS to set)
        -R      Register an IDE interface (DANGEROUS)
        -S      Set standby (spindown) timeout
        -t      Perform device read timings
        -T      Perform cache read timings
        -u      Get/set unmaskirq flag (0/1)
        -U      Unregister an IDE interface (DANGEROUS)
        -v      Defaults; same as -mcudkrag for IDE drives
        -V      Display program version and exit immediately
        -w      Perform device reset (DANGEROUS)
        -W      Set drive write-caching flag (0/1) (DANGEROUS)
        -x      Tristate device for hotswap (0/1) (DANGEROUS)
        -X      Set IDE xfer mode (DANGEROUS)
        -y      Put IDE drive in standby mode
        -Y      Put IDE drive to sleep
        -Z      Disable Seagate auto-powersaving mode
        -z      Reread partition table
head [OPTIONS] [FILE]...
Print first 10 lines of each FILE (or stdin) to stdout. With more than one FILE, precede each with a filename header.
        -n N[kbm]       Print first N lines
        -n -N[kbm]      Print all except N last lines
        -c [-]N[kbm]    Print first N bytes
        -q              Never print headers
        -v              Always print headers
N may be suffixed by k (x1024), b (x512), or m (x1024^2).
hexdump [-bcCdefnosvxR] [FILE]...
Display FILEs (or stdin) in a user specified format
        -b              1-byte octal display
        -c              1-byte character display
        -d              2-byte decimal display
        -o              2-byte octal display
        -x              2-byte hex display
        -C              hex+ASCII 16 bytes per line
        -v              Show all (no dup folding)
        -e FORMAT_STR   Example: '16/1 "%02x|""\n"'
        -f FORMAT_FILE
        -n LENGTH       Show only first LENGTH bytes
        -s OFFSET       Skip OFFSET bytes
        -R              Reverse of 'hexdump -Cv'
hexedit FILE
Edit FILE in hexadecimal
Print out a unique 32-bit identifier for the machine
Get or set hostname or DNS domain name
        -s      Short
        -i      Addresses for the hostname
        -d      DNS domain name
        -f      Fully qualified domain name
        -F FILE Use FILE's content as hostname
httpd [-ifv[v]] [-c CONFFILE] [-p [IP:]PORT] [-u USER[:GRP]] [-r REALM] [-h HOME] or httpd -d/-e/-m STRING
Listen for incoming HTTP requests
        -i              Inetd mode
        -f              Don't daemonize
        -v[v]           Verbose
        -p [IP:]PORT    Bind to IP:PORT (default *:80)
        -u USER[:GRP]   Set uid/gid after binding to port
        -r REALM        Authentication Realm for Basic Authentication
        -h HOME         Home directory (default .)
        -c FILE         Configuration file (default {/etc,HOME}/httpd.conf)
        -m STRING       MD5 crypt STRING
        -e STRING       HTML encode STRING
        -d STRING       URL decode STRING
hwclock [-r|--show] [-s|--hctosys] [-w|--systohc] [--systz] [--localtime] [-u|--utc] [-f|--rtc FILE]
Query and set hardware clock (RTC)
        -r      Show hardware clock time
        -s      Set system time from hardware clock
        -w      Set hardware clock from system time
        --systz Set in-kernel timezone, correct system time
                if hardware clock is in local time
        -u      Assume hardware clock is kept in UTC
        --localtime     Assume hardware clock is kept in local time
        -f FILE Use specified device (e.g. /dev/rtc2)
i2cdetect -l | -F I2CBUS | [-ya] [-q|-r] I2CBUS [FIRST LAST]
Detect I2C chips
        -l      List installed buses
        -F BUS# List functionalities on this bus
        -y      Disable interactive mode
        -a      Force scanning of non-regular addresses
        -q      Use smbus quick write commands for probing (default)
        -r      Use smbus read byte commands for probing
        FIRST and LAST limit probing range
i2cdump [-fy] [-r FIRST-LAST] BUS ADDR [MODE]
Examine I2C registers
        I2CBUS  I2C bus number
        ADDRESS 0x03-0x77
MODE is:
        b       Byte (default)
        w       Word
        W       Word on even register addresses
        i       I2C block
        s       SMBus block
        c       Consecutive byte
        Append p for SMBus PEC
        -f      Force access
        -y      Disable interactive mode
        -r      Limit the number of registers being accessed
Read from I2C/SMBus chip registers
        I2CBUS  I2C bus number
        ADDRESS 0x03-0x77
MODE is:
        b       Read byte data (default)
        w       Read word data
        c       Write byte/read byte
        Append p for SMBus PEC
        -f      Force access
        -y      Disable interactive mode
Set I2C registers
        I2CBUS  I2C bus number
        ADDRESS 0x03-0x77
MODE is:
        c       Byte, no value
        b       Byte data (default)
        w       Word data
        i       I2C block data
        s       SMBus block data
        Append p for SMBus PEC
        -f      Force access
        -y      Disable interactive mode
        -r      Read back and compare the result
        -m MASK Mask specifying which bits to write
Print information about USER or the current user
        -u      User ID
        -g      Group ID
        -G      Supplementary group IDs
        -n      Print names instead of numbers
        -r      Print real ID instead of effective ID
ifconfig [-a] interface [address]
Configure a network interface
        [add ADDRESS[/PREFIXLEN]]
        [del ADDRESS[/PREFIXLEN]]
        [[-]broadcast [ADDRESS]] [[-]pointopoint [ADDRESS]]
        [netmask ADDRESS] [dstaddr ADDRESS]
        [outfill NN] [keepalive NN]
        [hw ether|infiniband ADDRESS] [metric NN] [mtu NN]
        [[-]trailers] [[-]arp] [[-]allmulti]
        [multicast] [[-]promisc] [txqueuelen NN] [[-]dynamic]
        [mem_start NN] [io_addr NN] [irq NN]
        [up|down] ...
ifdown [-anmvf] [-i FILE] IFACE...
        -a      Deconfigure all interfaces
        -i FILE Use FILE for interface definitions
        -n      Print out what would happen, but don't do it
                (note: doesn't disable mappings)
        -m      Don't run any mappings
        -v      Print out what would happen before doing it
        -f      Force deconfiguration
ifenslave [-cdf] MASTER_IFACE SLAVE_IFACE...
Configure network interfaces for parallel routing
        -c      Change active slave
        -d      Remove slave interface from bonding device
        -f      Force, even if interface is not Ethernet
ifplugd [OPTIONS]
Network interface plug detection daemon
        -n              Don't daemonize
        -s              Don't log to syslog
        -i IFACE        Interface
        -f/-F           Treat link detection error as link down/link up
                        (otherwise exit on error)
        -a              Don't up interface at each link probe
        -M              Monitor creation/destruction of interface
                        (otherwise it must exist)
        -r PROG         Script to run
        -x ARG          Extra argument for script
        -I              Don't exit on nonzero exit code from script
        -p              Don't run "up" script on startup
        -q              Don't run "down" script on exit
        -l              Always run script on startup
        -t SECS         Poll time in seconds
        -u SECS         Delay before running script after link up
        -d SECS         Delay after link down
        -m MODE         API mode (mii, priv, ethtool, wlan, iff, auto)
        -k              Kill running daemon
ifup [-anmvf] [-i FILE] IFACE...
        -a      Configure all interfaces
        -i FILE Use FILE instead of /etc/network/interfaces
        -n      Print out what would happen, but don't do it
                (note: doesn't disable mappings)
        -m      Don't run any mappings
        -v      Print out what would happen before doing it
        -f      Force configuration
inetd [-fe] [-q N] [-R N] [CONFFILE]
Listen for network connections and launch programs
        -f      Run in foreground
        -e      Log to stderr
        -q N    Socket listen queue (default 128)
        -R N    Pause services after N connects/min
                (default 0 - disabled)
        Default CONFFILE is /etc/inetd.conf
Init is the first process started during boot. It never exits. It (re)spawns children according to /etc/inittab.
inotifyd PROG FILE1[:MASK]...
Run PROG on filesystem changes. When a filesystem event matching MASK occurs on FILEn, PROG ACTUAL_EVENTS FILEn [SUBFILE] is run. If PROG is -, events are sent to stdout. Events:
        a       File is accessed
        c       File is modified
        e       Metadata changed
        w       Writable file is closed
        0       Unwritable file is closed
        r       File is opened
        D       File is deleted
        M       File is moved
        u       Backing fs is unmounted
        o       Event queue overflowed
        x       File can't be watched anymore
If watching a directory:
        y       Subfile is moved into dir
        m       Subfile is moved out of dir
        n       Subfile is created
        d       Subfile is deleted
inotifyd waits for PROG to exit. When x event happens for all FILEs, inotifyd exits.
Load kernel module
install [-cdDsp] [-o USER] [-g GRP] [-m MODE] [-t DIR] [SOURCE]... DEST
Copy files and set attributes
        -c      Just copy (default)
        -d      Create directories
        -D      Create leading target directories
        -s      Strip symbol table
        -p      Preserve date
        -o USER Set ownership
        -g GRP  Set group ownership
        -m MODE Set permissions
        -t DIR  Install to DIR
ionice [-c 1-3] [-n 0-7] [-p PID] [PROG]
Change I/O priority and class
        -c      Class. 1:realtime 2:best-effort 3:idle
        -n      Priority
iostat [-c] [-d] [-t] [-z] [-k|-m] [ALL|BLOCKDEV...] [INTERVAL [COUNT]]
Report CPU and I/O statistics
        -c      Show CPU utilization
        -d      Show device utilization
        -t      Print current time
        -z      Omit devices with no activity
        -k      Use kb/s
        -m      Use Mb/s
ip [OPTIONS] address|route|link|tunnel|neigh|rule [COMMAND]
OPTIONS := -f[amily] inet|inet6|link | -o[neline] COMMAND := ip addr add|del IFADDR dev IFACE | show|flush [dev IFACE] [to PREFIX] ip route list|flush|add|del|change|append|replace|test ROUTE ip link set IFACE [up|down] [arp on|off] [multicast on|off] [promisc on|off] [mtu NUM] [name NAME] [qlen NUM] [address MAC] [master IFACE | nomaster] ip tunnel add|change|del|show [NAME] [mode ipip|gre|sit] [remote ADDR] [local ADDR] [ttl TTL] ip neigh show|flush [to PREFIX] [dev DEV] [nud STATE] ip rule [list] | add|del SELECTOR ACTION
ipaddr add|del IFADDR dev IFACE | show|flush [dev IFACE] [to PREFIX]
ipaddr add|change|replace|delete dev IFACE IFADDR IFADDR := PREFIX | ADDR peer PREFIX [broadcast ADDR|+|-] [anycast ADDR] [label STRING] [scope SCOPE] PREFIX := ADDR[/MASK] SCOPE := [host|link|global|NUMBER] ipaddr show|flush [dev IFACE] [scope SCOPE] [to PREFIX] [label PATTERN]
Calculate and display network settings from IP address
        -b      Broadcast address
        -n      Network address
        -m      Default netmask for IP
        -p      Prefix for IP/NETMASK
        -h      Resolved host name
        -s      No error messages
ipcrm [-MQS key] [-mqs id]
Upper-case options MQS remove an object by shmkey value. Lower-case options remove an object by shmid value.
        -mM     Remove memory segment after last detach
        -qQ     Remove message queue
        -sS     Remove semaphore
ipcs [[-smq] -i SHMID] | [[-asmq] [-tcplu]]
        -i ID   Show specific resource
Resource specification:
        -m      Shared memory segments
        -q      Message queues
        -s      Semaphore arrays
        -a      All (default)
Output format:
        -t      Time
        -c      Creator
        -p      Pid
        -l      Limits
        -u      Summary
iplink set IFACE [up|down] [arp on|off] [multicast on|off] [promisc on|off] [mtu NUM] [name NAME] [qlen NUM] [address MAC] [master IFACE | nomaster] iplink add [link IFACE] IFACE [address MAC] type TYPE [ARGS] iplink delete IFACE type TYPE [ARGS] TYPE ARGS := vlan VLANARGS | vrf table NUM VLANARGS := id VLANID [protocol 802.1q|802.1ad] [reorder_hdr on|off] [gvrp on|off] [mvrp on|off] [loose_binding on|off] iplink show [IFACE]
ipneigh show|flush [to PREFIX] [dev DEV] [nud STATE]
iproute list|flush|add|del|change|append|replace|test ROUTE
iproute list|flush SELECTOR SELECTOR := [root PREFIX] [match PREFIX] [proto RTPROTO] PREFIX := default|ADDR[/MASK] iproute get ADDR [from ADDR iif IFACE] [oif IFACE] [tos TOS] iproute add|del|change|append|replace|test ROUTE ROUTE := NODE_SPEC [INFO_SPEC] NODE_SPEC := PREFIX [table TABLE_ID] [proto RTPROTO] [scope SCOPE] [metric METRIC] INFO_SPEC := NH OPTIONS NH := [via [inet|inet6] ADDR] [dev IFACE] [src ADDR] [onlink] OPTIONS := [mtu [lock] NUM] [advmss [lock] NUM]
iprule [list] | add|del SELECTOR ACTION
        SELECTOR := [from PREFIX] [to PREFIX] [tos TOS] [fwmark FWMARK]
                        [dev IFACE] [pref NUMBER]
        ACTION := [table TABLE_ID] [nat ADDR]
                        [realms [SRCREALM/]DSTREALM]
        TABLE_ID := [local|main|default|NUMBER]
iptunnel add|change|del|show [NAME] [mode ipip|gre|sit] [remote ADDR] [local ADDR] [ttl TTL]
iptunnel add|change|del|show [NAME] [mode ipip|gre|sit] [remote ADDR] [local ADDR] [[i|o]seq] [[i|o]key KEY] [[i|o]csum] [ttl TTL] [tos TOS] [[no]pmtudisc] [dev PHYS_DEV]
kbd_mode [-a|k|s|u] [-C TTY]
Report or set VT console keyboard mode
        -a      Default (ASCII)
        -k      Medium-raw (keycode)
        -s      Raw (scancode)
        -u      Unicode (utf-8)
        -C TTY  Affect TTY
kill [-l] [-SIG] PID...
Send a signal (default: TERM) to given PIDs
        -l      List all signal names and numbers
killall [-l] [-q] [-SIG] PROCESS_NAME...
Send a signal (default: TERM) to given processes
        -l      List all signal names and numbers
        -q      Don't complain if no processes were killed
killall5 [-l] [-SIG] [-o PID]...
Send a signal (default: TERM) to all processes outside current session
        -l      List all signal names and numbers
        -o PID  Don't signal this PID
klogd [-c N] [-n]
Kernel logger
        -c N    Print to console messages more urgent than prio N (1-8)
        -n      Run in foreground
less [-EFIMmNSRh~] [FILE]...
View FILE (or stdin) one screenful at a time
        -E      Quit once the end of a file is reached
        -F      Quit if entire file fits on first screen
        -I      Ignore case in all searches
        -M,-m   Display status line with line numbers
                and percentage through the file
        -N      Prefix line number to each line
        -S      Truncate long lines
        -R      Remove color escape codes in input
        -~      Suppress ~s displayed past EOF
Create hard LINK to FILE
Create a link LINK or DIR/TARGET to the specified TARGET(s)
        -s      Make symlinks instead of hardlinks
        -f      Remove existing destinations
        -n      Don't dereference symlinks - treat like normal file
        -b      Make a backup of the target (if exists) before link operation
        -S suf  Use suffix instead of ~ when making backup files
        -T      2nd arg must be a DIR
        -v      Verbose
loadfont < font
Load a console font from stdin
loadkmap < keymap
Load a binary keyboard translation table from stdin
Write MESSAGE (or stdin) to syslog
        -s      Log to stderr as well as the system log
        -t TAG  Log using the specified tag (defaults to user name)
        -p PRIO Priority (numeric or facility.level pair)
login [-p] [-h HOST] [[-f] USER]
Begin a new session on the system
        -f      Don't authenticate (user already authenticated)
        -h HOST Host user came from (for network logins)
        -p      Preserve environment
Print the name of the current user
logread [-fF]
Show messages in syslogd's circular buffer
        -f      Output data as log grows
        -F      Same as -f, but dump buffer first
losetup [-r] [-o OFS] {-f|LOOPDEV} FILE - associate loop devices losetup -d LOOPDEV - disassociate losetup -a - show status losetup -f - show next free loop device
        -o OFS  Start OFS bytes into FILE
        -r      Read-only
        -f      Show/use next free loop device
SPOOLDIR must contain (symlinks to) device nodes or directories with names matching print queue names. In the first case, jobs are sent directly to the device. Otherwise each job is stored in queue directory and HELPER program is called. Name of file to print is passed in $DATAFILE variable. Example:
        tcpsvd -E 0 515 softlimit -m 999999 lpd /var/spool ./print
lpq [-P queue[@host[:port]]] [-U USERNAME] [-d JOBID]... [-fs]
        -P      lp service to connect to (else uses $PRINTER)
        -d      Delete jobs
        -f      Force any waiting job to be printed
        -s      Short display
lpr -P queue[@host[:port]] -U USERNAME -J TITLE -Vmh [FILE]...
        -P      lp service to connect to (else uses $PRINTER)
        -m      Send mail on completion
        -h      Print banner page too
        -V      Verbose
ls [-1AaCxdLHRFplinshrSXvctu] [-w WIDTH] [FILE]...
List directory contents
        -1      One column output
        -a      Include entries which start with .
        -A      Like -a, but exclude . and ..
        -x      List by lines
        -d      List directory entries instead of contents
        -L      Follow symlinks
        -H      Follow symlinks on command line
        -R      Recurse
        -p      Append / to dir entries
        -F      Append indicator (one of */=@|) to entries
        -l      Long listing format
        -i      List inode numbers
        -n      List numeric UIDs and GIDs instead of names
        -s      List allocated blocks
        -lc     List ctime
        -lu     List atime
        --full-time     List full date and time
        -h      Human readable sizes (1K 243M 2G)
        -S      Sort by size
        -X      Sort by extension
        -v      Sort by version
        -t      Sort by mtime
        -tc     Sort by ctime
        -tu     Sort by atime
        -r      Reverse sort order
        -w N    Format N columns wide
        --color[={always,never,auto}]   Control coloring
lsattr [-Radlv] [FILE]...
List ext2 file attributes
        -R      Recurse
        -a      Don't hide entries starting with .
        -d      List directory entries instead of contents
        -l      List long flag names
        -v      List version/generation number
List loaded kernel modules
Show all open files
lspci [-mk]
List all PCI devices
        -m      Parsable output
        -k      Show driver
lzcat [FILE]...
Decompress to stdout
lzma -d [-cfk] [FILE]...
Decompress FILE (or stdin)
        -d      Decompress
        -c      Write to stdout
        -f      Force
        -k      Keep input files
lzopcat [-vF] [FILE]...
        -v      Verbose
        -F      Don't verify checksum
makedevs [-d device_table] rootdir
Create a range of special files as specified in a device table. Device table entries take the form of:
<name> <type> <mode> <uid> <gid> <major> <minor> <start> <inc> <count> Where name is the file name, type can be one of: f Regular file d Directory c Character device b Block device p Fifo (named pipe) uid is the user id for the target file, gid is the group id for the target file. The rest of the entries (major, minor, etc) apply to to device special files. A '-' may be used for blank entries.
makemime [OPTIONS] [FILE]...
Create multipart MIME-encoded message from FILEs
        -o FILE Output. Default: stdout
        -a HDR  Add header(s). Examples:
                "From:", "Date: `date -R`"
        -c CT   Content type. Default: application/octet-stream
        -C CS   Charset. Default: us-ascii
Other options are silently ignored
man [-aw] [MANPAGE]...
Format and display manual page
        -a      Display all pages
        -w      Show page locations
$COLUMNS overrides output width
md5sum [-c[sw]] [FILE]...
Print or check MD5 checksums
        -c      Check sums against list in FILEs
        -s      Don't output anything, status code shows success
        -w      Warn about improperly formatted checksum lines
mdev [-s]
mdev -s is to be run during boot to scan /sys and populate /dev.
Bare mdev is a kernel hotplug helper. To activate it: echo /sbin/mdev >/proc/sys/kernel/hotplug
It uses /etc/mdev.conf with lines [-][ENV=regex;]...DEVNAME UID:GID PERM [>|=PATH]|[!] [@|$|*PROG] where DEVNAME is device name regex, @major,minor[-minor2], or environment variable regex. A common use of the latter is to load modules for hotplugged devices:
        $MODALIAS=.* 0:0 660 @modprobe "$MODALIAS"
If /dev/mdev.seq file exists, mdev will wait for its value to match $SEQNUM variable. This prevents plug/unplug races. To activate this feature, create empty /dev/mdev.seq at boot.
If /dev/mdev.log file exists, debug log will be appended to it.
mesg [y|n]
Control write access to your terminal y Allow write access to your terminal n Disallow write access to your terminal
microcom [-d DELAY] [-t TIMEOUT] [-s SPEED] [-X] TTY
Copy bytes for stdin to TTY and from TTY to stdout
        -d      Wait up to DELAY ms for TTY output before sending every
                next byte to it
        -t      Exit if both stdin and TTY are silent for TIMEOUT ms
        -s      Set serial line to SPEED
        -X      Disable special meaning of NUL and Ctrl-X from stdin
        -m MODE Mode
        -p      No error if exists; make parent directories as needed
mkdosfs [-v] [-n LABEL] BLOCKDEV [KBYTES]
Make a FAT32 filesystem
        -v      Verbose
        -n LBL  Volume label
        -b BLK_SIZE     Block size, bytes
        -F              Force
        -i RATIO        Max number of files is filesystem_size / RATIO
        -I BYTES        Inode size (min 128)
        -L LBL          Volume label
        -m PERCENT      Percent of blocks to reserve for admin
        -n              Dry run
mkfifo [-m MODE] NAME
Create named pipe
        -m MODE Mode (default a=rw)
        -b BLK_SIZE     Block size, bytes
        -F              Force
        -i RATIO        Max number of files is filesystem_size / RATIO
        -I BYTES        Inode size (min 128)
        -L LBL          Volume label
        -m PERCENT      Percent of blocks to reserve for admin
        -n              Dry run
mkfs.minix [-c | -l FILE] [-nXX] [-iXX] BLOCKDEV [KBYTES]
Make a MINIX filesystem
        -c              Check device for bad blocks
        -n [14|30]      Maximum length of filenames
        -i INODES       Number of inodes for the filesystem
        -l FILE         Read bad blocks list from FILE
        -v              Make version 2 filesystem
mkfs.vfat [-v] [-n LABEL] BLOCKDEV [KBYTES]
Make a FAT32 filesystem
        -v      Verbose
        -n LBL  Volume label
Create a special file (block, character, or pipe)
        -m MODE Creation mode (default a=rw)
        b       Block device
        c or u  Character device
        p       Named pipe (MAJOR MINOR must be omitted)
Print crypt(3) hashed PASSWORD
        -P,--password-fd N      Read password from fd N
        -m,--method TYPE        des,md5,sha256/512 (default des)
        -S,--salt SALT
Prepare BLOCKDEV to be used as swap partition
        -L LBL  Label
mktemp [-dt] [-p DIR] [TEMPLATE]
Create a temporary file with name based on TEMPLATE and print its name. TEMPLATE must end with XXXXXX (e.g. [/dir/]nameXXXXXX). Without TEMPLATE, -t tmp.XXXXXX is assumed.
        -d      Make directory, not file
        -q      Fail silently on errors
        -t      Prepend base directory name to TEMPLATE
        -p DIR  Use DIR as a base directory (implies -t)
        -u      Do not create anything; print a name
Base directory is: -p DIR, else $TMPDIR, else /tmp
modinfo [-adlpn0] [-F keyword] MODULE
        -a              Shortcut for '-F author'
        -d              Shortcut for '-F description'
        -l              Shortcut for '-F license'
        -p              Shortcut for '-F parm'
        -F keyword      Keyword to look for
        -0              Separate output with NULs
modprobe [-rq] MODULE [SYMBOL=VALUE]...
        -r      Remove MODULE
        -q      Quiet
more [FILE]...
View FILE (or stdin) one screenful at a time
Mount a filesystem. Filesystem autodetection requires /proc.
        -a              Mount all filesystems in fstab
        -f              Dry run
        -i              Don't run mount helper
        -v              Verbose
        -r              Read-only mount
        -t FSTYPE[,...] Filesystem type(s)
        -T FILE         Read FILE instead of /etc/fstab
        -O OPT          Mount only filesystems with option OPT (-a only)
-o OPT:
        loop            Ignored (loop devices are autodetected)
        [a]sync         Writes are [a]synchronous
        [no]atime       Disable/enable updates to inode access times
        [no]diratime    Disable/enable atime updates to directories
        [no]relatime    Disable/enable atime updates relative to modification time
        [no]dev         (Dis)allow use of special device files
        [no]exec        (Dis)allow use of executable files
        [no]suid        (Dis)allow set-user-id-root programs
        [r]shared       Convert [recursively] to a shared subtree
        [r]slave        Convert [recursively] to a slave subtree
        [r]private      Convert [recursively] to a private subtree
        [un]bindable    Make mount point [un]able to be bind mounted
        [r]bind         Bind a file or directory [recursively] to another location
        move            Relocate an existing mount point
        remount         Remount a mounted filesystem, changing flags
        ro              Same as -r
There are filesystem-specific -o flags.
mountpoint [-q] <[-dn] DIR | -x DEVICE>
Check if the directory is a mountpoint
        -q      Quiet
        -d      Print major/minor device number of the filesystem
        -n      Print device name of the filesystem
        -x      Print major/minor device number of the blockdevice
mpstat [-A] [-I SUM|CPU|ALL|SCPU] [-u] [-P num|ALL] [INTERVAL [COUNT]]
Per-processor statistics
        -A                      Same as -I ALL -u -P ALL
        -I SUM|CPU|ALL|SCPU     Report interrupt statistics
        -P num|ALL              Processor to monitor
        -u                      Report CPU utilization
mt [-f device] opcode value
Control magnetic tape drive operation
Available Opcodes:
bsf bsfm bsr bss datacompression drvbuffer eof eom erase fsf fsfm fsr fss load lock mkpart nop offline ras1 ras2 ras3 reset retension rewind rewoffline seek setblk setdensity setpart tell unload unlock weof wset
mv [-fin] SOURCE DEST or: mv [-fin] SOURCE... DIRECTORY
Rename SOURCE to DEST, or move SOURCE(s) to DIRECTORY
        -f      Don't prompt before overwriting
        -i      Interactive, prompt before overwrite
        -n      Don't overwrite an existing file
nameif [-s] [-c FILE] [IFNAME HWADDR]...
Rename network interface while it in the down state. The device with address HWADDR is renamed to IFACE.
        -c FILE Configuration file (default: /etc/mactab)
        -s      Log to syslog
Connect to HOST and provide a network block device on BLOCKDEV
nc [OPTIONS] HOST PORT - connect nc [OPTIONS] -l -p PORT [HOST] [PORT] - listen
        -e PROG Run PROG after connect (must be last)
        -l      Listen mode, for inbound connects
        -lk     With -e, provides persistent server
        -p PORT Local port
        -s ADDR Local address
        -w SEC  Timeout for connects and final net reads
        -i SEC  Delay interval for lines sent
        -n      Don't do DNS resolution
        -u      UDP mode
        -v      Verbose
        -o FILE Hex dump traffic
        -z      Zero-I/O mode (scanning)
netstat [-ral] [-tuwx] [-enWp]
Display networking information
        -r      Routing table
        -a      All sockets
        -l      Listening sockets
                Else: connected sockets
        -t      TCP sockets
        -u      UDP sockets
        -w      Raw sockets
        -x      Unix sockets
                Else: all socket types
        -e      Other/more information
        -n      Don't resolve names
        -W      Wide display
        -p      Show PID/program name for sockets
nice [-n ADJUST] [PROG ARGS]
Change scheduling priority, run PROG
        -n ADJUST       Adjust priority by ADJUST
nl [OPTIONS] [FILE]...
Write FILEs to standard output with line numbers added
        -b STYLE        Which lines to number - a: all, t: nonempty, n: none
        -i N            Line number increment
        -s STRING       Use STRING as line number separator
        -v N            Start from N
        -w N            Width of line numbers
Monitor system in real time
 -d MSEC        Milliseconds between updates, default:1000, none:-1
Format specifiers:
 %Nc or %[cN]   CPU. N - bar size (default 10)
                (displays: S:system U:user N:niced D:iowait I:irq i:softirq)
 %m             Allocated memory
 %[mf]          Free memory
 %[mt]          Total memory
 %s             Allocated swap
 %f             Number of used file descriptors
 %Ni            Total/specific IRQ rate
 %x             Context switch rate
 %p             Forks
 %[pn]          # of processes
 %b             Block io
 %Nt            Time (with N decimal points)
 %r             Print <cr> instead of <lf> at EOL
Run PROG immune to hangups, with output to a non-tty
Print number of CPUs
nsenter [OPTIONS] [PROG [ARGS]]
        -t PID          Target process to get namespaces from
        -m[FILE]        Enter mount namespace
        -u[FILE]        Enter UTS namespace (hostname etc)
        -i[FILE]        Enter System V IPC namespace
        -n[FILE]        Enter network namespace
        -p[FILE]        Enter pid namespace
        -U[FILE]        Enter user namespace
        -S UID          Set uid in entered namespace
        -G GID          Set gid in entered namespace
        --preserve-credentials  Don't touch uids or gids
        -r[DIR]         Set root directory
        -w[DIR]         Set working directory
        -F              Don't fork before exec'ing PROG
nslookup [-type=QUERY_TYPE] [-debug] HOST [DNS_SERVER]
Query DNS about HOST
QUERY_TYPE: soa,ns,a,aaaa,cname,mx,txt,ptr,any
ntpd [-dnqNwl -I IFACE] [-S PROG] [-p PEER]...
NTP client/server
        -d      Verbose (may be repeated)
        -n      Do not daemonize
        -q      Quit after clock is set
        -N      Run at high priority
        -w      Do not set time (only query peers), implies -n
        -S PROG Run PROG after stepping time, stratum change, and every 11 mins
        -p PEER Obtain time from PEER (may be repeated)
                If -p is not given, 'server HOST' lines
                from /etc/ntp.conf are used
        -l      Also run as server on port 123
        -I IFACE Bind server to IFACE, implies -l
od [-abcdfhilovxs] [-t TYPE] [-A RADIX] [-N SIZE] [-j SKIP] [-S MINSTR] [-w WIDTH] [FILE]...
Print FILEs (or stdin) unambiguously, as octal bytes by default
openvt [-c N] [-sw] [PROG ARGS]
Start PROG on a new virtual terminal
        -c N    Use specified VT
        -s      Switch to the VT
        -w      Wait for PROG to exit
partprobe DEVICE...
Ask kernel to rescan partition table
passwd [OPTIONS] [USER]
Change USER's password (default: current user)
        -a ALG  des,md5,sha256/512 (default des)
        -d      Set password to ''
        -l      Lock (disable) account
        -u      Unlock (enable) account
paste [OPTIONS] [FILE]...
Paste lines from each input file, separated with tab
        -d LIST Use delimiters from LIST, not tab
        -s      Serial: one file at a time
        -p N    Strip N leading components from file names
        -i DIFF Read DIFF instead of stdin
        -R      Reverse patch
        -N      Ignore already applied patches
        -E      Remove output files if they become empty
        --dry-run       Don't actually change files
pgrep [-flanovx] [-s SID|-P PPID|PATTERN]
Display process(es) selected by regex PATTERN
        -l      Show command name too
        -a      Show command line too
        -f      Match against entire command line
        -n      Show the newest process only
        -o      Show the oldest process only
        -v      Negate the match
        -x      Match whole name (not substring)
        -s      Match session ID (0 for current)
        -P      Match parent process ID
pidof [OPTIONS] [NAME]...
List PIDs of all processes with names that match NAMEs
        -s      Show only one PID
        -o PID  Omit given pid
                Use %PPID to omit pid of pidof's parent
Send ICMP ECHO_REQUEST packets to network hosts
        -4,-6           Force IP or IPv6 name resolution
        -c CNT          Send only CNT pings
        -s SIZE         Send SIZE data bytes in packets (default 56)
        -A              Ping as soon as reply is recevied
        -t TTL          Set TTL
        -I IFACE/IP     Source interface or IP address
        -W SEC          Seconds to wait for the first response (default 10)
                        (after all -c CNT packets are sent)
        -w SEC          Seconds until ping exits (default:infinite)
                        (can exit earlier with -c CNT)
        -q              Quiet, only display output at start
                        and when finished
        -p HEXBYTE      Pattern to use for payload
Send ICMP ECHO_REQUEST packets to network hosts
        -c CNT          Send only CNT pings
        -s SIZE         Send SIZE data bytes in packets (default 56)
        -A              Ping as soon as reply is recevied
        -I IFACE/IP     Source interface or IP address
        -q              Quiet, only display output at start
                        and when finished
        -p HEXBYTE      Pattern to use for payload
pivot_root NEW_ROOT PUT_OLD
Move the current root file system to PUT_OLD and make NEW_ROOT the new root file system
pkill [-l|-SIGNAL] [-fnovx] [-s SID|-P PPID|PATTERN]
Send a signal to process(es) selected by regex PATTERN
        -l      List all signals
        -f      Match against entire command line
        -n      Signal the newest process only
        -o      Signal the oldest process only
        -v      Negate the match
        -x      Match whole name (not substring)
        -s      Match session ID (0 for current)
        -P      Match parent process ID
pmap [-xq] PID...
Display process memory usage
        -x      Show details
        -q      Quiet
Fetch content of remote mailbox to local maildir
        -s              Skip authorization
        -T              Get messages with TOP instead of RETR
        -k              Keep retrieved messages on the server
        -t SEC          Network timeout
        -F 'PROG ARGS'  Filter program (may be repeated)
        -M 'PROG ARGS'  Delivery program
Fetch from plain POP3 server: popmaildir -k DIR nc 110 <user_and_pass.txt Fetch from SSLed POP3 server and delete fetched emails: popmaildir DIR -- openssl s_client -quiet -connect <user_and_pass.txt
poweroff [-d DELAY] [-n] [-f]
Halt and shut off power
        -d SEC  Delay interval
        -n      Do not sync
        -f      Force (don't go through init)
Analyze power consumption on Intel-based laptops
printenv [VARIABLE]...
Print environment VARIABLEs. If no VARIABLE specified, print all.
printf FORMAT [ARG]...
Format and print ARG(s) according to FORMAT (a-la C printf)
ps [-o COL1,COL2=HEADER] [-T]
Show list of processes
        -o COL1,COL2=HEADER     Select columns for display
        -T                      Show threads
pscan [-cb] [-p MIN_PORT] [-P MAX_PORT] [-t TIMEOUT] [-T MIN_RTT] HOST
Scan a host, print all open ports
        -c      Show closed ports too
        -b      Show blocked ports too
        -p      Scan from this port (default 1)
        -P      Scan up to this port (default 1024)
        -t      Timeout (default 5000 ms)
        -T      Minimum rtt (default 5 ms, increase for congested hosts)
pstree [-p] [PID|USER]
Display process tree, optionally start from USER or PID
        -p      Show pids
Print the full filename of the current working directory
pwdx PID...
Show current directory for PIDs
raidautorun DEVICE
Tell the kernel to automatically search and start RAID arrays
rdate [-s/-p] HOST
Set and print time from HOST using RFC 868
        -s      Only set system time
        -p      Only print time
Print the device node associated with the filesystem mounted at '/'
readahead [FILE]...
Preload FILEs to RAM
readlink [-fnv] FILE
Display the value of a symlink
        -f      Canonicalize by following all symlinks
        -n      Don't add newline
        -v      Verbose
readprofile [OPTIONS]
        -m mapfile      (Default: /boot/
        -p profile      (Default: /proc/profile)
        -M NUM          Set the profiling multiplier to NUM
        -i              Print only info about the sampling step
        -v              Verbose
        -a              Print all symbols, even if count is 0
        -b              Print individual histogram-bin counts
        -s              Print individual counters within functions
        -r              Reset all the counters (root only)
        -n              Disable byte order auto-detection
realpath FILE...
Return the absolute pathnames of given FILE
reboot [-d DELAY] [-n] [-f]
Reboot the system
        -d SEC  Delay interval
        -n      Do not sync
        -f      Force (don't go through init)
reformime [OPTIONS]
Parse MIME-encoded message on stdin
        -x PREFIX       Extract content of MIME sections to files
        -X PROG ARGS    Filter content of MIME sections through PROG
                        Must be the last option
Other options are silently ignored
renice [-n] PRIORITY [[-p | -g | -u] ID...]...
Change scheduling priority of a running process
        -n      Add PRIORITY to current nice value
                Without -n, nice value is set to PRIORITY
        -p      Process ids (default)
        -g      Process group ids
        -u      Process user names
Reset the screen
Resize the screen
Restore system state from 'suspend-to-disk' data in BLOCKDEV
rev [FILE]...
Reverse lines of FILE
Enable/disable wireless devices
        list [INDEX|TYPE]       List current state
        block INDEX|TYPE        Disable device
        unblock INDEX|TYPE      Enable device
        TYPE: all, wlan(wifi), bluetooth, uwb(ultrawideband),
                wimax, wwan, gps, fm
rm [-irf] FILE...
Remove (unlink) FILEs
        -i      Always prompt before removing
        -f      Never prompt
        -R,-r   Recurse
Remove DIRECTORY if it is empty
        -p      Include parents
rmmod MODULE...
Unload kernel modules
route [{add|del|delete}]
Edit kernel routing tables
        -n      Don't resolve names
        -e      Display other/more information
        -A inet{6}      Select address family
rpm2cpio PACKAGE.rpm
Output a cpio archive of the rpm file
rtcwake [-a | -l | -u] [-d DEV] [-m MODE] [-s SEC | -t TIME]
Enter a system sleep state until specified wakeup time
        -a,--auto       Read clock mode from adjtime
        -l,--local      Clock is set to local time
        -u,--utc        Clock is set to UTC time
        -d,--device DEV Specify the RTC device
        -m,--mode MODE  Set sleep state (default: standby)
        -s,--seconds SEC Set timeout in SEC seconds from now
        -t,--time TIME  Set timeout to TIME seconds from epoch
run-init [-d CAP,CAP...] [-n] [-c CONSOLE_DEV] NEW_ROOT NEW_INIT [ARGS]
Free initramfs and switch to another root fs:
chroot to NEW_ROOT, delete all in /, move NEW_ROOT to /, execute NEW_INIT. PID must be 1. NEW_ROOT must be a mountpoint.
        -c DEV  Reopen stdio to DEV after switch
        -d CAPS Drop capabilities
        -n      Dry run
run-parts [-a ARG]... [-u UMASK] [--reverse] [--test] [--exit-on-error] [--list] DIRECTORY
Run a bunch of scripts in DIRECTORY
        -a ARG          Pass ARG as argument to scripts
        -u UMASK        Set UMASK before running scripts
        --reverse       Reverse execution order
        --test          Dry run
        --exit-on-error Exit if a script exits with non-zero
        --list          Print names of matching files even if they are not executable
runsv DIR
Start and monitor a service and optionally an appendant log service
runsvdir [-P] [-s SCRIPT] DIR
Start a runsv process for each subdirectory. If it exits, restart it.
        -P              Put each runsv in a new session
        -s SCRIPT       Run SCRIPT <signo> after signal is processed
Receive a file using the xmodem protocol
script [-afq] [-t[FILE]] [-c PROG] [OUTFILE]
Default OUTFILE is 'typescript'
        -a      Append output
        -c PROG Run PROG, not shell
        -q      Quiet
        -t[FILE] Send timing to stderr or FILE
Play back typescripts, using timing information
sed [-i[SFX]] [-nrE] [-f FILE]... [-e CMD]... [FILE]... or: sed [-i[SFX]] [-nrE] CMD [FILE]...
        -e CMD  Add CMD to sed commands to be executed
        -f FILE Add FILE contents to sed commands to be executed
        -i[SFX] Edit files in-place (otherwise sends to stdout)
                Optionally back files up, appending SFX
        -n      Suppress automatic printing of pattern space
        -r,-E   Use extended regex syntax
If no -e or -f, the first non-option argument is the sed command string. Remaining arguments are input files (stdin if none).
sendmail [-tv] [-f SENDER] [-amLOGIN 4<user_pass.txt | -auUSER -apPASS] [-w SECS] [-H 'PROG ARGS' | -S HOST] [RECIPIENT_EMAIL]...
Read email from stdin and send it
Standard options:
        -t              Read additional recipients from message body
        -f SENDER       For use in MAIL FROM:<sender>. Can be empty string
                        Default: -auUSER, or username of current UID
        -o OPTIONS      Various options. -oi implied, others are ignored
        -i              -oi synonym, implied and ignored
Busybox specific options:
        -v              Verbose
        -w SECS         Network timeout
        -H 'PROG ARGS'  Run connection helper. Examples:
                openssl s_client -quiet -tls1 -starttls smtp -connect
                openssl s_client -quiet -tls1 -connect
                        $SMTP_ANTISPAM_DELAY: seconds to wait after helper connect
        -S HOST[:PORT]  Server (default $SMTPHOST or
        -amLOGIN        Log in using AUTH LOGIN (-amCRAM-MD5 not supported)
        -auUSER         Username for AUTH
        -apPASS         Password for AUTH
If no -a options are given, authentication is not done. If -amLOGIN is given but no -au/-ap, user/password is read from fd #4. Other options are silently ignored; -oi is implied. Use makemime to create emails with attachments.
seq [-w] [-s SEP] [FIRST [INC]] LAST
Print numbers from FIRST to LAST, in steps of INC. FIRST, INC default to 1.
        -w      Pad to last with leading zeros
        -s SEP  String separator
        linux32 Set 32bit uname emulation
        linux64 Set 64bit uname emulation
        -R      Disable address space randomization
setconsole [-r] [DEVICE]
Make writes to /dev/console appear on DEVICE (default: /dev/tty). Does not redirect kernel log output or reads from /dev/console.
        -r      Reset: writes to /dev/console go to kernel log tty(s)
setfattr [-h] -n|-x ATTR [-v VALUE] FILE...
Set extended attributes
        -h              Do not follow symlinks
        -x ATTR         Remove attribute ATTR
        -n ATTR         Set attribute ATTR to VALUE
        -v VALUE        (default: empty)
setfont FONT [-m MAPFILE] [-C TTY]
Load a console font
        -m MAPFILE      Load console screen map
        -C TTY          Affect TTY instead of /dev/tty
setkeycodes { SCANCODE KEYCODE }...
Modify kernel's scancode-to-keycode map, allowing unusual keyboards to generate usable keycodes.
SCANCODE is either xx or e0xx (hexadecimal), KEYCODE is decimal.
setlogcons [N]
Pin kernel output to VT console N. Default:0 (do not pin)
Run PROG with different privilege settings
-d,--dump Show current capabilities --nnp,--no-new-privs Ignore setuid/setgid bits and file capabilities --inh-caps CAP,CAP Set inheritable capabilities --ambient-caps CAP,CAP Set ambient capabilities
setserial [-abGvz] { DEVICE [PARAMETER [ARG]]... | -g DEVICE... }
Print or set serial port parameters
        -a      Print all
        -b      Print summary
        -G      Print as setserial PARAMETERs
        -v      Verbose
        -z      Zero out serial flags before setting
        -g      All args are device names
PARAMETERs: (* = takes ARG, ^ = can be turned off by preceding ^) *port, *irq, *divisor, *uart, *baud_base, *close_delay, *closing_wait, ^fourport, ^auto_irq, ^skip_test, ^sak, ^session_lockout, ^pgrp_lockout, ^callout_nohup, ^split_termios, ^hup_notify, ^low_latency, autoconfig, spd_normal, spd_hi, spd_vhi, spd_shi, spd_warp, spd_cust ARG for uart:
        unknown, 8250, 16450, 16550, 16550A, Cirrus, 16650, 16650V2, 16750,
        16950, 16954, 16654, 16850, RSA, NS16550A, XSCALE, RM9000, OCTEON, AR7,
setsid [-c] PROG ARGS
Run PROG in a new session. PROG will have no controlling terminal and will not be affected by keyboard signals (^C etc).
        -c      Set controlling terminal to stdin
setuidgid USER PROG ARGS
Set uid and gid to USER's uid and gid, drop supplementary group ids, run PROG
sh [-/+OPTIONS] [-/+o OPT]... [-c 'SCRIPT' [ARG0 [ARGS]] / FILE [ARGS] / -s [ARGS]]
Unix shell interpreter
sha1sum [-c[sw]] [FILE]...
Print or check SHA1 checksums
        -c      Check sums against list in FILEs
        -s      Don't output anything, status code shows success
        -w      Warn about improperly formatted checksum lines
sha256sum [-c[sw]] [FILE]...
Print or check SHA256 checksums
        -c      Check sums against list in FILEs
        -s      Don't output anything, status code shows success
        -w      Warn about improperly formatted checksum lines
sha3sum [-c[sw]] [-a BITS] [FILE]...
Print or check SHA3 checksums
        -c      Check sums against list in FILEs
        -s      Don't output anything, status code shows success
        -w      Warn about improperly formatted checksum lines
        -a BITS 224 (default), 256, 384, 512
sha512sum [-c[sw]] [FILE]...
Print or check SHA512 checksums
        -c      Check sums against list in FILEs
        -s      Don't output anything, status code shows success
        -w      Warn about improperly formatted checksum lines
showkey [-a | -k | -s]
Show keys pressed
        -a      Display decimal/octal/hex values of the keys
        -k      Display interpreted keycodes (default)
        -s      Display raw scan-codes
shred FILE...
Overwrite/delete FILEs
        -f      Chmod to ensure writability
        -n N    Overwrite N times (default 3)
        -z      Final overwrite with zeros
        -u      Remove file
shuf [-e|-i L-H] [-n NUM] [-o FILE] [-z] [FILE|ARG...]
Randomly permute lines
        -e      Treat ARGs as lines
        -i L-H  Treat numbers L-H as lines
        -n NUM  Output at most NUM lines
        -o FILE Write to FILE, not standard output
        -z      End lines with zero byte, not newline
slattach [-ehmLF] [-c SCRIPT] [-s BAUD] [-p PROTOCOL] SERIAL_DEVICE
Configure serial line as SLIP network interface
        -p PROT Protocol: slip, cslip (default), slip6, clisp6, adaptive
        -s BAUD Line speed
        -e      Exit after initialization
        -h      Exit if carrier is lost (else never exits)
        -c PROG Run PROG on carrier loss
        -m      Do NOT set raw 8bit mode
        -L      Enable 3-wire operation
        -F      Disable RTS/CTS flow control
sleep [N]...
Pause for a time equal to the total of the args given, where each arg can have an optional suffix of (s)econds, (m)inutes, (h)ours, or (d)ays
Collect memory usage data in /proc and write it to stdout
softlimit [-a BYTES] [-m BYTES] [-d BYTES] [-s BYTES] [-l BYTES] [-f BYTES] [-c BYTES] [-r BYTES] [-o N] [-p N] [-t N] PROG ARGS
Set soft resource limits, then run PROG
        -a BYTES        Limit total size of all segments
        -m BYTES        Same as -d BYTES -s BYTES -l BYTES -a BYTES
        -d BYTES        Limit data segment
        -s BYTES        Limit stack segment
        -l BYTES        Limit locked memory size
        -o N            Limit number of open files per process
        -p N            Limit number of processes per uid
Options controlling file sizes:
        -f BYTES        Limit output file sizes
        -c BYTES        Limit core file size
Efficiency opts:
        -r BYTES        Limit resident set size
        -t N            Limit CPU time, process receives
                        a SIGXCPU after N seconds
sort [-nrugMcszbdfiokt] [-o FILE] [-k start[.offset][opts][,end[.offset][opts]] [-t CHAR] [FILE]...
Sort lines of text
        -o FILE Output to FILE
        -c      Check whether input is sorted
        -b      Ignore leading blanks
        -f      Ignore case
        -i      Ignore unprintable characters
        -d      Dictionary order (blank or alphanumeric only)
        -n      Sort numbers
        -g      General numerical sort
        -M      Sort month
        -t CHAR Field separator
        -k N[,M] Sort by Nth field
        -r      Reverse sort order
        -s      Stable (don't sort ties alphabetically)
        -u      Suppress duplicate lines
        -z      Lines are terminated by NUL, not newline
        -b N[k|m]       Split by N (kilo|mega)bytes
        -l N            Split by N lines
        -a N            Use N letters as suffix
ssl_client [-e] -s FD [-r FD] [-n SNI]
start-stop-daemon [OPTIONS] [-S|-K] ... [-- ARGS...]
Search for matching processes, and then -K: stop all matching processes -S: start a process unless a matching process is found
Process matching:
        -u USERNAME|UID Match only this user's processes
        -n NAME         Match processes with NAME
                        in comm field in /proc/PID/stat
        -x EXECUTABLE   Match processes with this command
                        command in /proc/PID/cmdline
        -p FILE         Match a process with PID from FILE
        All specified conditions must match
-S only:
        -x EXECUTABLE   Program to run
        -a NAME         Zeroth argument
        -b              Background
        -N N            Change nice level
        -c USER[:[GRP]] Change user/group
        -m              Write PID to pidfile specified by -p
-K only:
        -s SIG          Signal to send
        -t              Match only, exit with 0 if found
        -o              Exit with status 0 if nothing is done
        -v              Verbose
        -q              Quiet
stat [OPTIONS] FILE...
Display file (default) or filesystem status
        -c FMT  Use the specified format
        -f      Display filesystem status
        -L      Follow links
        -t      Terse display
FMT sequences for files:
 %a     Access rights in octal
 %A     Access rights in human readable form
 %b     Number of blocks allocated (see %B)
 %B     Size in bytes of each block reported by %b
 %d     Device number in decimal
 %D     Device number in hex
 %f     Raw mode in hex
 %F     File type
 %g     Group ID
 %G     Group name
 %h     Number of hard links
 %i     Inode number
 %n     File name
 %N     File name, with -> TARGET if symlink
 %o     I/O block size
 %s     Total size in bytes
 %t     Major device type in hex
 %T     Minor device type in hex
 %u     User ID
 %U     User name
 %x     Time of last access
 %X     Time of last access as seconds since Epoch
 %y     Time of last modification
 %Y     Time of last modification as seconds since Epoch
 %z     Time of last change
 %Z     Time of last change as seconds since Epoch
FMT sequences for file systems:
 %a     Free blocks available to non-superuser
 %b     Total data blocks
 %c     Total file nodes
 %d     Free file nodes
 %f     Free blocks
 %i     File System ID in hex
 %l     Maximum length of filenames
 %n     File name
 %s     Block size (for faster transfer)
 %S     Fundamental block size (for block counts)
 %t     Type in hex
 %T     Type in human readable form
strings [-fo] [-t o/d/x] [-n LEN] [FILE]...
Display printable strings in a binary file
        -f              Precede strings with filenames
        -o              Precede strings with octal offsets
        -t o/d/x        Precede strings with offsets in base 8/10/16
        -n LEN          At least LEN characters form a string (default 4)
stty [-a|g] [-F DEVICE] [SETTING]...
Without arguments, prints baud rate, line discipline, and deviations from stty sane
        -F DEVICE       Open device instead of stdin
        -a              Print all current settings in human-readable form
        -g              Print in stty-readable form
        [SETTING]       See manpage
su [-lmp] [-] [-s SH] [USER [SCRIPT ARGS / -c 'CMD' ARG0 ARGS]]
Run shell under USER (by default, root)
        -,-l    Clear environment, go to home dir, run shell as login shell
        -p,-m   Do not set new $HOME, $SHELL, $USER, $LOGNAME
        -c CMD  Command to pass to 'sh -c'
        -s SH   Shell to use instead of user's default
sulogin [-t N] [TTY]
Single user login
        -t N    Timeout
sum [-rs] [FILE]...
Checksum and count the blocks in a file
        -r      Use BSD sum algorithm (1K blocks)
        -s      Use System V sum algorithm (512byte blocks)
sv [-v] [-w SEC] CMD SERVICE_DIR...
Control services monitored by runsv supervisor. Commands (only first character is enough):
status: query service status up: if service isn't running, start it. If service stops, restart it once: like 'up', but if service stops, don't restart it down: send TERM and CONT signals. If ./run exits, start ./finish if it exists. After it stops, don't restart service exit: send TERM and CONT signals to service and log service. If they exit, runsv exits too pause, cont, hup, alarm, interrupt, quit, 1, 2, term, kill: send STOP, CONT, HUP, ALRM, INT, QUIT, USR1, USR2, TERM, KILL signal to service
svc [-udopchaitkx] SERVICE_DIR...
Control services monitored by runsv supervisor
        -u      If service is not running, start it; restart if it stops
        -d      If service is running, send TERM+CONT signals; do not restart it
        -o      Once: if service is not running, start it; do not restart it
        -pchaitk Send STOP, CONT, HUP, ALRM, INT, TERM, KILL signal to service
        -x      Exit: runsv will exit as soon as the service is down
svlogd [-tttv] [-r C] [-R CHARS] [-l MATCHLEN] [-b BUFLEN] DIR...
Read log data from stdin and write to rotated log files in DIRs
-r C Replace non-printable characters with C -R CHARS Also replace CHARS with C (default _) -t Timestamp with @tai64n -tt Timestamp with yyyy-mm-dd_hh:mm:ss.sssss -ttt Timestamp with yyyy-mm-ddThh:mm:ss.sssss -v Verbose
DIR/config file modifies behavior: sSIZE - when to rotate logs (default 1000000, 0 disables) nNUM - number of files to retain !PROG - process rotated log with PROG +,-PATTERN - (de)select line for logging E,ePATTERN - (de)select line for stderr
Check whether runsv supervisor is running. Exit code is 0 if it does, 100 if it does not, 111 (with error message) if SERVICE_DIR does not exist.
swapoff [-a] [DEVICE]
Stop swapping on DEVICE
        -a      Stop swapping on all swap devices
swapon [-a] [-e] [-d[POL]] [-p PRI] [DEVICE]
Start swapping on DEVICE
        -a      Start swapping on all swap devices
        -d[POL] Discard blocks at swapon (POL=once),
                as freed (POL=pages), or both (POL omitted)
        -e      Silently skip devices that do not exist
        -p PRI  Set swap device priority
Free initramfs and switch to another root fs:
chroot to NEW_ROOT, delete all in /, move NEW_ROOT to /, execute NEW_INIT. PID must be 1. NEW_ROOT must be a mountpoint.
        -c DEV  Reopen stdio to DEV after switch
sync [-df] [FILE]...
Write all buffered blocks (in FILEs) to disk -d Avoid syncing metadata -f Sync filesystems underlying FILEs
sysctl -p [-enq] [FILE...] / [-enqaw] [KEY[=VALUE]]...
Show/set kernel parameters
        -p      Set values from FILEs (default /etc/sysctl.conf)
        -e      Don't warn about unknown keys
        -n      Don't show key names
        -q      Quiet
        -a      Show all values
        -w      Set values
syslogd [OPTIONS]
System logging utility
        -n              Run in foreground
        -R HOST[:PORT]  Log to HOST:PORT (default PORT:514)
        -L              Log locally and via network (default is network only if -R)
        -C[size_kb]     Log to shared mem buffer (use logread to read it)
        -K              Log to kernel printk buffer (use dmesg to read it)
        -O FILE         Log to FILE (default: /var/log/messages, stdout if -)
        -s SIZE         Max size (KB) before rotation (default 200KB, 0=off)
        -b N            N rotated logs to keep (default 1, max 99, 0=purge)
        -l N            Log only messages more urgent than prio N (1-8)
        -S              Smaller output
        -D              Drop duplicates
        -f FILE         Use FILE as config (default:/etc/syslog.conf)
tac [FILE]...
Concatenate FILEs and print them in reverse
tail [OPTIONS] [FILE]...
Print last 10 lines of each FILE (or stdin) to stdout. With more than one FILE, precede each with a filename header.
        -f              Print data as file grows
        -c [+]N[kbm]    Print last N bytes
        -n N[kbm]       Print last N lines
        -n +N[kbm]      Start on Nth line and print the rest
        -q              Never print headers
        -s SECONDS      Wait SECONDS between reads with -f
        -v              Always print headers
        -F              Same as -f, but keep retrying
N may be suffixed by k (x1024), b (x512), or m (x1024^2).
tar c|x|t [-ZzJjahvokO] [-f TARFILE] [-C DIR] [-T FILE] [-X FILE] [--exclude PATTERN]... [FILE]...
Create, extract, or list files from a tar file
        c       Create
        x       Extract
        t       List
        -f FILE Name of TARFILE ('-' for stdin/out)
        -C DIR  Change to DIR before operation
        -v      Verbose
        -O      Extract to stdout
        -o      Don't restore user:group
        -k      Don't replace existing files
        -Z      (De)compress using compress
        -z      (De)compress using gzip
        -J      (De)compress using xz
        -j      (De)compress using bzip2
        -a      (De)compress using lzma
        -h      Follow symlinks
        -T FILE File with names to include
        -X FILE File with glob patterns to exclude
        --exclude PATTERN       Glob pattern to exclude
taskset [-p] [HEXMASK] PID | PROG ARGS
Set or get CPU affinity
        -p      Operate on an existing PID
OBJECT: qdisc|class|filter CMD: add|del|change|replace|show
qdisc [handle QHANDLE] [root|ingress|parent CLASSID] [[QDISC_KIND] [help|OPTIONS]] QDISC_KIND := [p|b]fifo|tbf|prio|cbq|red|etc. qdisc show [dev STRING] [ingress] class [classid CLASSID] [root|parent CLASSID] [[QDISC_KIND] [help|OPTIONS] ] class show [ dev STRING ] [root|parent CLASSID] filter [pref PRIO] [protocol PROTO] [root|classid CLASSID] [handle FILTERID] [[FILTER_TYPE] [help|OPTIONS]] filter show [dev STRING] [root|parent CLASSID]
tcpsvd [-hEv] [-c N] [-C N[:MSG]] [-b N] [-u USER] [-l NAME] IP PORT PROG
Create TCP socket, bind to IP:PORT and listen for incoming connections. Run PROG for each connection.
        IP PORT         IP:PORT to listen on
        PROG ARGS       Program to run
        -u USER[:GRP]   Change to user/group after bind
        -c N            Up to N connections simultaneously (default 30)
        -b N            Allow backlog of approximately N TCP SYNs (default 20)
        -C N[:MSG]      Allow only up to N connections from the same IP:
                        new connections from this IP address are closed
                        immediately, MSG is written to the peer before close
        -E              Don't set up environment
        -h              Look up peer's hostname
        -l NAME         Local hostname (else look up local hostname in DNS)
        -v              Verbose
Environment if no -E: PROTO='TCP' TCPREMOTEADDR='ip:port' ('[ip]:port' for IPv6) TCPLOCALADDR='ip:port' TCPORIGDSTADDR='ip:port' of destination before firewall Useful for REDIRECTed-to-local connections: iptables -t nat -A PREROUTING -p tcp --dport 80 -j REDIRECT --to 8080 TCPCONCURRENCY=num_of_connects_from_this_ip If -h: TCPLOCALHOST='hostname' (-l NAME is used if specified) TCPREMOTEHOST='hostname'
tee [-ai] [FILE]...
Copy stdin to each FILE, and also to stdout
        -a      Append to the given FILEs, don't overwrite
        -i      Ignore interrupt signals (SIGINT)
telnet [-a] [-l USER] HOST [PORT]
Connect to telnet server
        -a      Automatic login with $USER variable
        -l USER Automatic login as USER
telnetd [OPTIONS]
Handle incoming telnet connections
        -l LOGIN        Exec LOGIN on connect
        -f ISSUE_FILE   Display ISSUE_FILE instead of /etc/issue
        -K              Close connection as soon as login exits
                        (normally wait until all programs close slave pty)
        -p PORT         Port to listen on
        -b ADDR[:PORT]  Address to bind to
        -F              Run in foreground
        -i              Inetd mode
Transfer a file from/to tftp server
        -l FILE Local FILE
        -r FILE Remote FILE
        -g      Get file
        -p      Put file
        -b SIZE Transfer blocks of SIZE octets
tftpd [-cr] [-u USER] [DIR]
Transfer a file on tftp client's request
tftpd should be used as an inetd service. tftpd's line for inetd.conf: 69 dgram udp nowait root tftpd tftpd -l /files/to/serve It also can be ran from udpsvd:
        udpsvd -vE 69 tftpd /files/to/serve
        -r      Prohibit upload
        -c      Allow file creation via upload
        -u      Access files as USER
        -l      Log to syslog (inetd mode requires this)
time [-vpa] [-o FILE] PROG ARGS
Run PROG, display resource usage when it exits
        -v      Verbose
        -p      POSIX output format
        -f FMT  Custom format
        -o FILE Write result to FILE
        -a      Append (else overwrite)
timeout [-t SECS] [-s SIG] PROG ARGS
Runs PROG. Sends SIG to it if it is not gone in SECS seconds. Defaults: SECS: 10, SIG: TERM.
top [-b] [-nCOUNT] [-dSECONDS] [-m]
Provide a view of process activity in real time. Read the status of all processes from /proc each SECONDS and display a screenful of them. Keys:
        N/M/P/T: show CPU usage, sort by pid/mem/cpu/time
        S: show memory
        R: reverse sort
        H: toggle threads, 1: toggle SMP
        Q,^C: exit
        -b      Batch mode
        -n N    Exit after N iterations
        -d N    Delay between updates
        -m      Same as 's' key
touch [-c] [-d DATE] [-t DATE] [-r FILE] FILE...
Update the last-modified date on the given FILE[s]
        -c      Don't create files
        -h      Don't follow links
        -d DT   Date/time to use
        -t DT   Date/time to use
        -r FILE Use FILE's date/time
tr [-cds] STRING1 [STRING2]
Translate, squeeze, or delete characters from stdin, writing to stdout
        -c      Take complement of STRING1
        -d      Delete input characters coded STRING1
        -s      Squeeze multiple output characters of STRING2 into one character
traceroute [-46FIlnrv] [-f 1ST_TTL] [-m MAXTTL] [-q PROBES] [-p PORT] [-t TOS] [-w WAIT_SEC] [-s SRC_IP] [-i IFACE] [-z PAUSE_MSEC] HOST [BYTES]
Trace the route to HOST
        -4,-6   Force IP or IPv6 name resolution
        -F      Set don't fragment bit
        -l      Display TTL value of the returned packet
        -n      Print numeric addresses
        -r      Bypass routing tables, send directly to HOST
        -f N    First number of hops (default 1)
        -m N    Max number of hops
        -q N    Number of probes per hop (default 3)
        -p N    Base UDP port number used in probes
                (default 33434)
        -s IP   Source address
        -i IFACE Source interface
        -t N    Type-of-service in probe packets (default 0)
        -w SEC  Time to wait for a response (default 3)
        -g IP   Loose source route gateway (8 max)
traceroute6 [-nrv] [-m MAXTTL] [-q PROBES] [-p PORT] [-t TOS] [-w WAIT_SEC] [-s SRC_IP] [-i IFACE] HOST [BYTES]
Trace the route to HOST
        -n      Print numeric addresses
        -r      Bypass routing tables, send directly to HOST
        -m N    Max number of hops
        -q N    Number of probes per hop (default 3)
        -p N    Base UDP port number used in probes
                (default 33434)
        -s IP   Source address
        -i IFACE Source interface
        -t N    Type-of-service in probe packets (default 0)
        -w SEC  Time wait for a response (default 3)
truncate [-c] -s SIZE FILE...
Truncate FILEs to the given size
        -c      Do not create files
        -s SIZE Truncate to SIZE
Print file name of stdin's terminal
        -s      Print nothing, only return exit status
ttysize [w] [h]
Print dimensions of stdin tty, or 80x24
tunctl [-f device] ([-t name] | -d name) [-u owner] [-g group] [-b]
Create or delete tun interfaces
        -f name         tun device (/dev/net/tun)
        -t name         Create iface 'name'
        -d name         Delete iface 'name'
        -u owner        Set iface owner
        -g group        Set iface group
        -b              Brief output
Adjust filesystem options on ext[23] filesystems
Attach MTD device to UBI
        -m MTD_NUM      MTD device number to attach
        -d UBI_NUM      UBI device number to assign
        -O VID_HDR_OFF  VID header offset
ubidetach -d UBI_NUM UBI_CTRL_DEV
Detach MTD device from UBI
        -d UBI_NUM      UBI device number
ubimkvol -N NAME [-s SIZE | -m] UBI_DEVICE
Create UBI volume
        -a ALIGNMENT    Volume alignment (default 1)
        -m              Set volume size to maximum available
        -n VOLID        Volume ID. If not specified,
                        assigned automatically
        -N NAME         Volume name
        -s SIZE         Size in bytes
        -t TYPE         Volume type (static|dynamic)
Rename UBI volumes on UBI_DEVICE
Remove UBI volume
        -n VOLID        Volume ID
        -N VOLNAME      Volume name
ubirsvol -n VOLID -s SIZE UBI_DEVICE
Resize UBI volume
        -n VOLID        Volume ID
        -s SIZE         Size in bytes
ubiupdatevol -t UBI_DEVICE | [-s SIZE] UBI_DEVICE IMG_FILE
Update UBI volume
        -t      Truncate to zero size
        -s SIZE Size in bytes to resize to
udhcpc [-fbqvRB] [-a[MSEC]] [-t N] [-T SEC] [-A SEC/-n] [-i IFACE] [-P PORT] [-s PROG] [-p PIDFILE] [-oC] [-r IP] [-V VENDOR] [-F NAME] [-x OPT:VAL]... [-O OPT]...
        -i IFACE        Interface to use (default eth0)
        -P PORT         Use PORT (default 68)
        -s PROG         Run PROG at DHCP events (default /usr/share/udhcpc/default.script)
        -p FILE         Create pidfile
        -B              Request broadcast replies
        -t N            Send up to N discover packets (default 3)
        -T SEC          Pause between packets (default 3)
        -A SEC          Wait if lease is not obtained (default 20)
        -n              Exit if lease is not obtained
        -q              Exit after obtaining lease
        -R              Release IP on exit
        -f              Run in foreground
        -b              Background if lease is not obtained
        -S              Log to syslog too
        -a[MSEC]        Validate offered address with ARP ping
        -r IP           Request this IP address
        -o              Don't request any options (unless -O is given)
        -O OPT          Request option OPT from server (cumulative)
        -x OPT:VAL      Include option OPT in sent packets (cumulative)
                        Examples of string, numeric, and hex byte opts:
                        -x hostname:bbox - option 12
                        -x lease:3600 - option 51 (lease time)
                        -x 0x3d:0100BEEFC0FFEE - option 61 (client id)
                        -x 14:'"dumpfile"' - option 14 (shell-quoted)
        -F NAME         Ask server to update DNS mapping for NAME
        -V VENDOR       Vendor identifier (default 'udhcp VERSION')
        -C              Don't send MAC as client identifier
        -v              Verbose
        USR1    Renew lease
        USR2    Release lease
udhcpc6 [-fbnqvodR] [-i IFACE] [-r IPv6] [-s PROG] [-p PIDFILE] [-x OPT:VAL]... [-O OPT]... [-P N]
        -i IFACE        Interface to use (default eth0)
        -p FILE         Create pidfile
        -s PROG         Run PROG at DHCP events (default /usr/share/udhcpc/default.script)
        -B              Request broadcast replies
        -t N            Send up to N discover packets
        -T N            Pause between packets (default 3 seconds)
        -A N            Wait N seconds (default 20) after failure
        -f              Run in foreground
        -b              Background if lease is not obtained
        -n              Exit if lease is not obtained
        -q              Exit after obtaining lease
        -R              Release IP on exit
        -S              Log to syslog too
        -P N            Use port N (default 546)
        -O OPT          Request option OPT from server (cumulative)
        -o              Don't request any options (unless -O is given)
        -r IPv6         Request this address ('no' to not request any IP)
        -d              Request prefix
        -x OPT:VAL      Include option OPT in sent packets (cumulative)
                        Examples of string, numeric, and hex byte opts:
                        -x hostname:bbox - option 12
                        -x lease:3600 - option 51 (lease time)
                        -x 0x3d:0100BEEFC0FFEE - option 61 (client id)
                        -x 14:'"dumpfile"' - option 14 (shell-quoted)
        -v              Verbose
        USR1    Renew lease
        USR2    Release lease
udhcpd [-fS] [-I ADDR] [-P N] [CONFFILE]
DHCP server
        -f      Run in foreground
        -S      Log to syslog too
        -I ADDR Local address
        -a MSEC Timeout for ARP ping (default 2000)
        -P N    Use port N (default 67)
udpsvd [-hEv] [-c N] [-u USER] [-l NAME] IP PORT PROG
Create UDP socket, bind to IP:PORT and wait for incoming packets. Run PROG for each packet, redirecting all further packets with same peer ip:port to it.
        IP PORT         IP:PORT to listen on
        PROG ARGS       Program to run
        -u USER[:GRP]   Change to user/group after bind
        -c N            Up to N connections simultaneously (default 30)
        -E              Don't set up environment
        -h              Look up peer's hostname
        -l NAME         Local hostname (else look up local hostname in DNS)
        -v              Verbose
Environment if no -E: PROTO='UDP' UDPREMOTEADDR='ip:port' ('[ip]:port' for IPv6) UDPLOCALADDR='ip:port' If -h: UDPLOCALHOST='hostname' (-l NAME is used if specified) UDPREMOTEHOST='hostname'
uevent [PROG [ARGS]]
uevent runs PROG for every netlink notification. PROG's environment contains data passed from the kernel. Typical usage (daemon for dynamic device node creation): # uevent mdev & mdev -s
Unmount file systems
        -a      Unmount all file systems
        -r      Try to remount devices as read-only if mount is busy
        -l      Lazy umount (detach filesystem)
        -f      Force umount (i.e., unreachable NFS server)
        -d      Free loop device if it has been used
        -t FSTYPE[,...] Unmount only these filesystem type(s)
uname [-amnrspvio]
Print system information
        -a      Print all
        -m      The machine (hardware) type
        -n      Hostname
        -r      Kernel release
        -s      Kernel name (default)
        -p      Processor type
        -v      Kernel version
        -i      The hardware platform
        -o      OS name
uncompress [-cf] [FILE]...
Decompress .Z file[s]
        -c      Write to stdout
        -f      Overwrite
unexpand [-fa][-t N] [FILE]...
Convert spaces to tabs, writing to stdout
        -a      Convert all blanks
        -f      Convert only leading blanks
        -t N    Tabstops every N chars
uniq [-cdu][-f,s,w N] [INPUT [OUTPUT]]
Discard duplicate lines
        -c      Prefix lines by the number of occurrences
        -d      Only print duplicate lines
        -u      Only print unique lines
        -i      Ignore case
        -f N    Skip first N fields
        -s N    Skip first N chars (after any skipped fields)
        -w N    Compare N characters in line
unix2dos [-ud] [FILE]
Convert FILE in-place from Unix to DOS format. When no file is given, use stdin/stdout.
        -u      dos2unix
        -d      unix2dos
unlink FILE
Delete FILE by calling unlink()
unlzma [-cfk] [FILE]...
Decompress FILE (or stdin)
        -c      Write to stdout
        -f      Force
        -k      Keep input files
unlzop [-cfUvF] [FILE]...
        -c      Write to stdout
        -f      Force
        -U      Delete input files
        -v      Verbose
        -F      Don't verify checksum
unshare [OPTIONS] [PROG [ARGS]]
        -m,--mount[=FILE]       Unshare mount namespace
        -u,--uts[=FILE]         Unshare UTS namespace (hostname etc.)
        -i,--ipc[=FILE]         Unshare System V IPC namespace
        -n,--net[=FILE]         Unshare network namespace
        -p,--pid[=FILE]         Unshare PID namespace
        -U,--user[=FILE]        Unshare user namespace
        -f,--fork               Fork before execing PROG
        -r,--map-root-user      Map current user to root (implies -U)
        --mount-proc[=DIR]      Mount /proc filesystem first (implies -m)
        --propagation slave|shared|private|unchanged
                                Modify mount propagation in mount namespace
        --setgroups allow|deny  Control the setgroups syscall in user namespaces
unxz [-cfk] [FILE]...
Decompress FILE (or stdin)
        -c      Write to stdout
        -f      Force
        -k      Keep input files
unzip [-lnojpq] FILE[.zip] [FILE]... [-x FILE...] [-d DIR]
Extract FILEs from ZIP archive
        -l      List contents (with -q for short form)
        -n      Never overwrite files (default: ask)
        -o      Overwrite
        -j      Do not restore paths
        -p      Print to stdout
        -q      Quiet
        -x FILE Exclude FILEs
        -d DIR  Extract into DIR
Display the time since the last boot
usleep N
Pause for N microseconds
uudecode [-o OUTFILE] [INFILE]
Uudecode a file Finds OUTFILE in uuencoded source unless -o is given
uuencode [-m] [FILE] STORED_FILENAME
Uuencode FILE (or stdin) to stdout
        -m      Use base64 encoding per RFC1521
Create and remove virtual ethernet devices
        add             IFACE VLAN_ID
        rem             VLAN_NAME
        set_flag        IFACE 0|1 VLAN_QOS
        set_egress_map  VLAN_NAME SKB_PRIO VLAN_QOS
        set_ingress_map VLAN_NAME SKB_PRIO VLAN_QOS
        set_name_type   NAME_TYPE
vi [OPTIONS] [FILE]...
        -c CMD  Initial command to run ($EXINIT also available)
        -R      Read-only
        -H      List available features
vlock [-a]
Lock a virtual terminal. A password is required to unlock.
        -a      Lock all VTs
volname [DEVICE]
Show CD volume name of the DEVICE (default /dev/cdrom)
watch [-n SEC] [-t] PROG ARGS
Run PROG periodically
        -n      Loop period in seconds (default 2)
        -t      Don't print header
watchdog [-t N[ms]] [-T N[ms]] [-F] DEV
Periodically write to watchdog device DEV
        -T N    Reboot after N seconds if not reset (default 60)
        -t N    Reset every N seconds (default 30)
        -F      Run in foreground
Use 500ms to specify period in milliseconds
wc [-cmlwL] [FILE]...
Count lines, words, and bytes for each FILE (or stdin)
        -c      Count bytes
        -m      Count characters
        -l      Count newlines
        -w      Count words
        -L      Print longest line length
wget [-c|--continue] [--spider] [-q|--quiet] [-O|--output-document FILE] [--header 'header: value'] [-Y|--proxy on/off] [-P DIR] [-S|--server-response] [-U|--user-agent AGENT] [-T SEC] URL...
Retrieve files via HTTP or FTP
        --spider        Only check URL existence: $? is 0 if exists
        -c              Continue retrieval of aborted transfer
        -q              Quiet
        -P DIR          Save to DIR (default .)
        -S              Show server response
        -T SEC          Network read timeout is SEC seconds
        -O FILE         Save to FILE ('-' for stdout)
        -U STR          Use STR for User-Agent header
        -Y on/off       Use proxy
which [COMMAND]...
Locate a COMMAND
Print the user name associated with the current effective user id
whois [-i] [-h SERVER] [-p PORT] NAME...
Query WHOIS info about NAME
        -i      Show redirect results too
        -h,-p   Server to query
Run PROG on every item given by stdin
        -p      Ask user whether to run each command
        -r      Don't run command if input is empty
        -0      Input is separated by NUL characters
        -a FILE Read from FILE instead of stdin
        -t      Print the command on stderr before execution
        -e[STR] STR stops input processing
        -n N    Pass no more than N args to PROG
        -s N    Pass command line of no more than N bytes
        -I STR  Replace STR within PROG ARGS with input line
        -P N    Run up to N PROGs in parallel
        -x      Exit if size is exceeded
Hex dump FILE (or stdin)
        -g N            Bytes per group
        -c N            Bytes per line
        -p              Show only hex bytes, assumes -c30
        -l LENGTH       Show only first LENGTH bytes
        -s OFFSET       Skip OFFSET bytes
xz -d [-cfk] [FILE]...
Decompress FILE (or stdin)
        -d      Decompress
        -c      Write to stdout
        -f      Force
        -k      Keep input files
xzcat [FILE]...
Decompress to stdout
yes [STRING]
Repeatedly output a line with STRING, or 'y'
zcat [FILE]...
Decompress to stdout
Manage a ZeroConf IPv4 link-local address
        -f              Run in foreground
        -q              Quit after obtaining address
        -r 169.254.x.x  Request this address first
        -l x.x.0.0      Use this range instead of 169.254
        -v              Verbose
$LOGGING=none Suppress logging $LOGGING=syslog Log to syslog
With no -q, runs continuously monitoring for ARP conflicts, exits only on I/O errors (link down etc)


GNU Libc (glibc) uses the Name Service Switch (NSS) to configure the behavior of the C library for the local environment, and to configure how it reads system data, such as passwords and group information. This is implemented using an /etc/nsswitch.conf configuration file, and using one or more of the /lib/libnss_* libraries. BusyBox tries to avoid using any libc calls that make use of NSS. Some applets however, such as login and su, will use libc functions that require NSS.
If you enable CONFIG_USE_BB_PWD_GRP, BusyBox will use internal functions to directly access the /etc/passwd, /etc/group, and /etc/shadow files without using NSS. This may allow you to run your system without the need for installing any of the NSS configuration files and libraries.
When used with glibc, the BusyBox 'networking' applets will similarly require that you install at least some of the glibc NSS stuff (in particular, /etc/nsswitch.conf, /lib/libnss_dns*, /lib/libnss_files*, and /lib/libresolv*).
Shameless Plug: As an alternative, one could use a C library such as uClibc. In addition to making your system significantly smaller, uClibc does not require the use of any NSS support files or libraries.


Denis Vlasenko <>


The following people have contributed code to BusyBox whether they know it or not. If you have written code included in BusyBox, you should probably be listed here so you can obtain your bit of eternal glory. If you should be listed here, or the description of what you have done needs more detail, or is incorrect, please send in an update.
Emanuele Aina <>
Erik Andersen <>
    Tons of new stuff, major rewrite of most of the
    core apps, tons of new apps as noted in header files.
    Lots of tedious effort writing these boring docs that
    nobody is going to actually read.
Laurence Anderson <>
    rpm2cpio, unzip, get_header_cpio, read_gz interface, rpm
Jeff Angielski <>
    ftpput, ftpget
Edward Betts <>
    expr, hostid, logname, whoami
John Beppu <>
    du, nslookup, sort
Brian Candler <>
Randolph Chung <>
    fbset, ping, hostname
Dave Cinege <>
    more(v2), makedevs, dutmp, modularization, auto links file,
    various fixes, Linux Router Project maintenance
Jordan Crouse <>
Magnus Damm <>
    tftp client insmod powerpc support
Larry Doolittle <>
    pristine source directory compilation, lots of patches and fixes.
Glenn Engel <>
Gennady Feldman <>
    Sysklogd (single threaded syslogd, IPC Circular buffer support,
    logread), various fixes.
Karl M. Hegbloom <>
    cp_mv.c, the test suite, various fixes to utility.c, &c.
Daniel Jacobowitz <>
Matt Kraai <>
    documentation, bugfixes, test suite
Stephan Linz <>
    ipcalc, Red Hat equivalence
John Lombardo <>
Glenn McGrath <>
    Common unarchiving code and unarchiving applets, ifupdown, ftpgetput,
    nameif, sed, patch, fold, install, uudecode.
    Various bugfixes, review and apply numerous patches.
Manuel Novoa III <>
    cat, head, mkfifo, mknod, rmdir, sleep, tee, tty, uniq, usleep, wc, yes,
    mesg, vconfig, make_directory, parse_mode, dirname, mode_string,
    get_last_path_component, simplify_path, and a number trivial libbb routines
    also bug fixes, partial rewrites, and size optimizations in
    ash, basename, cal, cmp, cp, df, du, echo, env, ln, logname, md5sum, mkdir,
    mv, realpath, rm, sort, tail, touch, uname, watch, arith, human_readable,
    interface, dutmp, ifconfig, route
Vladimir Oleynik <>
    cmdedit; xargs(current), httpd(current);
    ports: ash, crond, fdisk, inetd, stty, traceroute, top;
    locale, various fixes
    and irreconcilable critic of everything not perfect.
Bruce Perens <>
    Original author of BusyBox in 1995, 1996. Some of his code can
    still be found hiding here and there...
Tim Riker <>
    bug fixes, member of fan club
Kent Robotti <>
    reset, tons and tons of bug reports and patches.
Chip Rosenthal <>, <>
    wget - Contributed by permission of Covad Communications
Pavel Roskin <>
    Lots of bugs fixes and patches.
Gyepi Sam <>
    Remote logging feature for syslogd
Linus Torvalds <>
    mkswap, fsck.minix, mkfs.minix
Mark Whitley <>
    grep, sed, cut, xargs(previous),
    style-guide, new-applet-HOWTO, bug fixes, etc.
Charles P. Wright <>
    gzip, mini-netcat(nc)
Enrique Zanardi <>
    tarcat (since removed), loadkmap, various fixes, Debian maintenance
Tito Ragusa <>
    devfsd and size optimizations in strings, openvt and deallocvt.
Paul Fox <>
    vi editing mode for ash, various other patches/fixes
Roberto A. Foglietta <>
    port: dnsd
Bernhard Reutner-Fischer <>
Mike Frysinger <>
    initial e2fsprogs, printenv, setarch, sum, misc
Jie Zhang <>
    fixed two bugs in msh and hush (exitcode of killed processes)
2018-09-11 version 1.29.3