- Print out a usage message.
- this prints extra details about the operations being performed.
- -config filename
- specifies the configuration file to use. Optional; for a description of the default value, see "COMMAND SUMMARY" in openssl(1).
- -name section
- specifies the configuration file section to use (overrides default_ca in the ca section).
- -in filename
- an input filename containing a single certificate request to be signed by the CA.
- -ss_cert filename
- a single self-signed certificate to be signed by the CA.
- -spkac filename
- a file containing a single Netscape signed public key and challenge and additional field values to be signed by the CA. See the SPKAC FORMAT section for information on the required input and output format.
- if present this should be the last option, all subsequent arguments are taken as the names of files containing certificate requests.
- -out filename
- the output file to output certificates to. The default is standard output. The certificate details will also be printed out to this file in PEM format (except that -spkac outputs DER format).
- -outdir directory
- the directory to output certificates to. The certificate will be written to a filename consisting of the serial number in hex with ".pem" appended.
- the CA certificate file.
- -keyfile filename
- the private key to sign requests with.
- -keyform PEM|DER
- the format of the data in the private key file. The default is PEM.
- -key password
- the password used to encrypt the private key. Since on some systems the command line arguments are visible (e.g. Unix with the 'ps' utility) this option should be used with caution.
- indicates the issued certificates are to be signed with the
key the certificate requests were signed with (given with
-keyfile). Certificate requests signed with a different key are
ignored. If -spkac, -ss_cert or -gencrl are given,
-selfsign is ignored.
- -passin arg
- the key password source. For more information about the format of arg see the PASS PHRASE ARGUMENTS section in openssl(1).
- don't output the text form of a certificate to the output file.
- -startdate date
- this allows the start date to be explicitly set. The format of the date is YYMMDDHHMMSSZ (the same as an ASN1 UTCTime structure).
- -enddate date
- this allows the expiry date to be explicitly set. The format of the date is YYMMDDHHMMSSZ (the same as an ASN1 UTCTime structure).
- -days arg
- the number of days to certify the certificate for.
- -md alg
- the message digest to use. Any digest supported by the OpenSSL dgst command can be used. This option also applies to CRLs.
- -policy arg
- this option defines the CA "policy" to use. This is a section in the configuration file which decides which fields should be mandatory or match the CA certificate. Check out the POLICY FORMAT section for more information.
- this is a legacy option to make ca work with very old versions of the IE certificate enrollment control "certenr3". It used UniversalStrings for almost everything. Since the old control has various security bugs its use is strongly discouraged. The newer control "Xenroll" does not need this option.
- Normally the DN order of a certificate is the same as the order of the fields in the relevant policy section. When this option is set the order is the same as the request. This is largely for compatibility with the older IE enrollment control which would only accept certificates if their DNs match the order of the request. This is not needed for Xenroll.
- The DN of a certificate can contain the EMAIL field if present in the request DN, however it is good policy just having the e-mail set into the altName extension of the certificate. When this option is set the EMAIL field is removed from the certificate' subject and set only in the, eventually present, extensions. The email_in_dn keyword can be used in the configuration file to enable this behaviour.
- this sets the batch mode. In this mode no questions will be asked and all certificates will be certified automatically.
- -extensions section
- the section of the configuration file containing certificate extensions to be added when a certificate is issued (defaults to x509_extensions unless the -extfile option is used). If no extension section is present then, a V1 certificate is created. If the extension section is present (even if it is empty), then a V3 certificate is created. See the:w x509v3_config(5) manual page for details of the extension section format.
- -extfile file
- an additional configuration file to read certificate extensions from (using the default section unless the -extensions option is also used).
- -engine id
- specifying an engine (by its unique id string) will cause ca to attempt to obtain a functional reference to the specified engine, thus initialising it if needed. The engine will then be set as the default for all available algorithms.
- -subj arg
- supersedes subject name given in the request. The arg must be formatted as /type0=value0/type1=value1/type2=..., characters may be escaped by \ (backslash), no spaces are skipped.
- this option causes field values to be interpreted as UTF8 strings, by default they are interpreted as ASCII. This means that the field values, whether prompted from a terminal or obtained from a configuration file, must be valid UTF8 strings.
- if reading serial from the text file as specified in the configuration fails, specifying this option creates a new random serial to be used as next serial number.
- This option causes the -subj argument to be interpreted
with full support for multivalued RDNs. Example:
- this option generates a CRL based on information in the index file.
- -crldays num
- the number of days before the next CRL is due. That is the days from now to place in the CRL nextUpdate field.
- -crlhours num
- the number of hours before the next CRL is due.
- -revoke filename
- a filename containing a certificate to revoke.
- -valid filename
- a filename containing a certificate to add a Valid certificate entry.
- -status serial
- displays the revocation status of the certificate with the specified serial number and exits.
- Updates the database index to purge expired certificates.
- -crl_reason reason
- revocation reason, where reason is one of:
unspecified, keyCompromise, CACompromise,
affiliationChanged, superseded, cessationOfOperation,
certificateHold or removeFromCRL. The matching of
reason is case insensitive. Setting any revocation reason will make
the CRL v2.
- -crl_hold instruction
- This sets the CRL revocation reason code to certificateHold and the hold instruction to instruction which must be an OID. Although any OID can be used only holdInstructionNone (the use of which is discouraged by RFC2459) holdInstructionCallIssuer or holdInstructionReject will normally be used.
- -crl_compromise time
- This sets the revocation reason to keyCompromise and the compromise time to time. time should be in GeneralizedTime format that is YYYYMMDDHHMMSSZ.
- -crl_CA_compromise time
- This is the same as crl_compromise except the revocation reason is set to CACompromise.
- -crlexts section
- the section of the configuration file containing CRL extensions to include. If no CRL extension section is present then a V1 CRL is created, if the CRL extension section is present (even if it is empty) then a V2 CRL is created. The CRL extensions specified are CRL extensions and not CRL entry extensions. It should be noted that some software (for example Netscape) can't handle V2 CRLs. See x509v3_config(5) manual page for details of the extension section format.
msie_hack With the exception of RANDFILE, this is probably a bug and may change in future releases. Many of the configuration file options are identical to command line options. Where the option is present in the configuration file and the command line the command line value is used. Where an option is described as mandatory then it must be present in the configuration file or the command line equivalent (if any) used.
- This specifies a file containing additional OBJECT IDENTIFIERS. Each line of the file should consist of the numerical form of the object identifier followed by white space then the short name followed by white space and finally the long name.
- This specifies a section in the configuration file containing extra object identifiers. Each line should consist of the short name of the object identifier followed by = and the numerical form. The short and long names are the same when this option is used.
- the same as the -outdir command line option. It specifies the directory where new certificates will be placed. Mandatory.
- the same as -cert. It gives the file containing the CA certificate. Mandatory.
- same as the -keyfile option. The file containing the CA private key. Mandatory.
- a file used to read and write random number seed information, or an EGD socket (see RAND_egd(3)).
- the same as the -days option. The number of days to certify a certificate for.
- the same as the -startdate option. The start date to certify a certificate for. If not set the current time is used.
- the same as the -enddate option. Either this option or default_days (or the command line equivalents) must be present.
- default_crl_hours default_crl_days
- the same as the -crlhours and the -crldays options. These will only be used if neither command line option is present. At least one of these must be present to generate a CRL.
- the same as the -md option. Mandatory.
- the text database file to use. Mandatory. This file must be present though initially it will be empty.
- if the value yes is given, the valid certificate entries in the database must have unique subjects. if the value no is given, several valid certificate entries may have the exact same subject. The default value is yes, to be compatible with older (pre 0.9.8) versions of OpenSSL. However, to make CA certificate roll-over easier, it's recommended to use the value no, especially if combined with the -selfsign command line option.
- a text file containing the next serial number to use in hex. Mandatory. This file must be present and contain a valid serial number.
- a text file containing the next CRL number to use in hex. The crl number will be inserted in the CRLs only if this file exists. If this file is present, it must contain a valid CRL number.
- the same as -extensions.
- the same as -crlexts.
- the same as -preserveDN
- the same as -noemailDN. If you want the EMAIL field to be removed from the DN of the certificate simply set this to 'no'. If not present the default is to allow for the EMAIL filed in the certificate's DN.
- the same as -msie_hack
- the same as -policy. Mandatory. See the POLICY FORMAT section for more information.
- name_opt, cert_opt
- these options allow the format used to display the
certificate details when asking the user to confirm signing. All the
options supported by the x509 utilities -nameopt and
-certopt switches can be used here, except the no_signame
and no_sigdump are permanently set and cannot be disabled (this is
because the certificate signature cannot be displayed because the
certificate has not been signed at this point).
- determines how extensions in certificate requests should be
handled. If set to none or this option is not present then
extensions are ignored and not copied to the certificate. If set to
copy then any extensions present in the request that are not
already present are copied to the certificate. If set to copyall
then all extensions in the request are copied to the certificate: if the
extension is already present in the certificate it is deleted first. See
the WARNINGS section before using this option.
openssl ca -in req.pem -out newcert.pemSign a certificate request, using CA extensions:
openssl ca -in req.pem -extensions v3_ca -out newcert.pemGenerate a CRL
openssl ca -gencrl -out crl.pemSign several requests:
openssl ca -infiles req1.pem req2.pem req3.pemCertify a Netscape SPKAC:
openssl ca -spkac spkac.txtA sample SPKAC file (the SPKAC line has been truncated for clarity):
SPKAC=MIG0MGAwXDANBgkqhkiG9w0BAQEFAANLADBIAkEAn7PDhCeV/xIxUg8V70YRxK2A5 CN=Steve Test emailAddressemail@example.com 0.OU=OpenSSL Group 1.OU=Another GroupA sample configuration file with the relevant sections for ca:
[ ca ] default_ca = CA_default # The default ca section [ CA_default ] dir = ./demoCA # top dir database = $dir/index.txt # index file. new_certs_dir = $dir/newcerts # new certs dir certificate = $dir/cacert.pem # The CA cert serial = $dir/serial # serial no file private_key = $dir/private/cakey.pem# CA private key RANDFILE = $dir/private/.rand # random number file default_days = 365 # how long to certify for default_crl_days= 30 # how long before next CRL default_md = md5 # md to use policy = policy_any # default policy email_in_dn = no # Don't add the email into cert DN name_opt = ca_default # Subject name display option cert_opt = ca_default # Certificate display option copy_extensions = none # Don't copy extensions from request [ policy_any ] countryName = supplied stateOrProvinceName = optional organizationName = optional organizationalUnitName = optional commonName = supplied emailAddress = optional
/usr/local/ssl/lib/openssl.cnf - master configuration file ./demoCA - main CA directory ./demoCA/cacert.pem - CA certificate ./demoCA/private/cakey.pem - CA private key ./demoCA/serial - CA serial number file ./demoCA/serial.old - CA serial number backup file ./demoCA/index.txt - CA text database file ./demoCA/index.txt.old - CA text database backup file ./demoCA/certs - certificate output file ./demoCA/.rnd - CA random seed information
basicConstraints = CA:TRUE, pathlen:0then even if a certificate is issued with CA:TRUE it will not be valid. req(1), spkac(1), x509(1), CA.pl(1), config(5), x509v3_config(5)