git commit [-a | --interactive | --patch] [-s] [-v] [-u<mode>] [--amend] [--dry-run] [(-c | -C | --fixup | --squash) <commit>] [-F <file> | -m <msg>] [--reset-author] [--allow-empty] [--allow-empty-message] [--no-verify] [-e] [--author=<author>] [--date=<date>] [--cleanup=<mode>] [--[no-]status] [-i | -o] [-S[<keyid>]] [--] [<file>...]
1.by using git add to incrementally "add" changes to the index before using the commit command (Note: even modified files must be "added");
2.by using git rm to remove files from the working tree and the index, again before using the commit command;
3.by listing files as arguments to the commit command (without --interactive or --patch switch), in which case the commit will ignore changes staged in the index, and instead record the current content of the listed files (which must already be known to Git);
4.by using the -a switch with the commit command to automatically "add" changes from all known files (i.e. all files that are already listed in the index) and to automatically "rm" files in the index that have been removed from the working tree, and then perform the actual commit;
5.by using the --interactive or --patch switches with the commit command to decide one by one which files or hunks should be part of the commit in addition to contents in the index, before finalizing the operation. See the “Interactive Mode” section of git-add(1) to learn how to operate these modes.
Tell the command to automatically stage files that have been modified and deleted, but new files you have not told Git about are not affected.-p, --patch
Use the interactive patch selection interface to chose which changes to commit. See git-add(1) for details.-C <commit>, --reuse-message=<commit>
Take an existing commit object, and reuse the log message and the authorship information (including the timestamp) when creating the commit.-c <commit>, --reedit-message=<commit>
Like -C, but with -c the editor is invoked, so that the user can further edit the commit message.--fixup=<commit>
Construct a commit message for use with rebase --autosquash. The commit message will be the subject line from the specified commit with a prefix of "fixup! ". See git-rebase(1) for details.--squash=<commit>
Construct a commit message for use with rebase --autosquash. The commit message subject line is taken from the specified commit with a prefix of "squash! ". Can be used with additional commit message options ( -m/-c/-C/-F). See git-rebase(1) for details.--reset-author
When used with -C/-c/--amend options, or when committing after a conflicting cherry-pick, declare that the authorship of the resulting commit now belongs to the committer. This also renews the author timestamp.--short
When doing a dry-run, give the output in the short-format. See git-status(1) for details. Implies --dry-run.--branch
Show the branch and tracking info even in short-format.--porcelain
When doing a dry-run, give the output in a porcelain-ready format. See git-status(1) for details. Implies --dry-run.--long
When doing a dry-run, give the output in the long-format. Implies --dry-run.-z, --null
When showing short or porcelain status output, print the filename verbatim and terminate the entries with NUL, instead of LF. If no format is given, implies the --porcelain output format. Without the -z option, filenames with "unusual" characters are quoted as explained for the configuration variable core.quotePath (see git-config(1)).-F <file>, --file=<file>
Take the commit message from the given file. Use - to read the message from the standard input.--author=<author>
Override the commit author. Specify an explicit author using the standard A U Thor <firstname.lastname@example.org> format. Otherwise <author> is assumed to be a pattern and is used to search for an existing commit by that author (i.e. rev-list --all -i --author=<author>); the commit author is then copied from the first such commit found.--date=<date>
Override the author date used in the commit.-m <msg>, --message=<msg>
Use the given <msg> as the commit message. If multiple -m options are given, their values are concatenated as separate paragraphs.The -m option is mutually exclusive with -c, -C, and -F.-t <file>, --template=<file>
When editing the commit message, start the editor with the contents in the given file. The commit.template configuration variable is often used to give this option implicitly to the command. This mechanism can be used by projects that want to guide participants with some hints on what to write in the message in what order. If the user exits the editor without editing the message, the commit is aborted. This has no effect when a message is given by other means, e.g. with the -m or -F options.-s, --signoff
Add Signed-off-by line by the committer at the end of the commit log message. The meaning of a signoff depends on the project, but it typically certifies that committer has the rights to submit this work under the same license and agrees to a Developer Certificate of Origin (see http://developercertificate.org/ for more information).-n, --no-verify
This option bypasses the pre-commit and commit-msg hooks. See also githooks(5).--allow-empty
Usually recording a commit that has the exact same tree as its sole parent commit is a mistake, and the command prevents you from making such a commit. This option bypasses the safety, and is primarily for use by foreign SCM interface scripts.--allow-empty-message
Like --allow-empty this command is primarily for use by foreign SCM interface scripts. It allows you to create a commit with an empty commit message without using plumbing commands like git-commit-tree(1).--cleanup=<mode>
This option determines how the supplied commit message should be cleaned up before committing. The <mode> can be strip, whitespace, verbatim, scissors or default. stripThe default can be changed by the commit.cleanup configuration variable (see git-config(1)).-e, --edit
Strip leading and trailing empty lines, trailing whitespace, commentary and collapse consecutive empty lines.whitespace
Same as strip except #commentary is not removed.verbatim
Do not change the message at all.scissors
Same as whitespace except that everything from (and including) the line found below is truncated, if the message is to be edited. " #" can be customized with core.commentChar.default
# ------------------------ >8 ------------------------
Same as strip if the message is to be edited. Otherwise whitespace.
The message taken from file with -F, command line with -m, and from commit object with -C are usually used as the commit log message unmodified. This option lets you further edit the message taken from these sources.--no-edit
Use the selected commit message without launching an editor. For example, git commit --amend --no-edit amends a commit without changing its commit message.--amend
Replace the tip of the current branch by creating a new commit. The recorded tree is prepared as usual (including the effect of the -i and -o options and explicit pathspec), and the message from the original commit is used as the starting point, instead of an empty message, when no other message is specified from the command line via options such as -m, -F, -c, etc. The new commit has the same parents and author as the current one (the --reset-author option can countermand this).It is a rough equivalent for:but can be used to amend a merge commit.You should understand the implications of rewriting history if you amend a commit that has already been published. (See the "RECOVERING FROM UPSTREAM REBASE" section in git-rebase(1).)--no-post-rewrite
$ git reset --soft HEAD^ $ ... do something else to come up with the right tree ... $ git commit -c ORIG_HEAD
Bypass the post-rewrite hook.-i, --include
Before making a commit out of staged contents so far, stage the contents of paths given on the command line as well. This is usually not what you want unless you are concluding a conflicted merge.-o, --only
Make a commit by taking the updated working tree contents of the paths specified on the command line, disregarding any contents that have been staged for other paths. This is the default mode of operation of git commit if any paths are given on the command line, in which case this option can be omitted. If this option is specified together with --amend, then no paths need to be specified, which can be used to amend the last commit without committing changes that have already been staged. If used together with --allow-empty paths are also not required, and an empty commit will be created.-u[<mode>], --untracked-files[=<mode>]
Show untracked files.The mode parameter is optional (defaults to all), and is used to specify the handling of untracked files; when -u is not used, the default is normal, i.e. show untracked files and directories.The possible options are:-v, --verbose
•no - Show no untracked files
•normal - Shows untracked files and directories
•all - Also shows individual files in untracked directories.The default can be changed using the status.showUntrackedFiles configuration variable documented in git-config(1).
Show unified diff between the HEAD commit and what would be committed at the bottom of the commit message template to help the user describe the commit by reminding what changes the commit has. Note that this diff output doesn’t have its lines prefixed with #. This diff will not be a part of the commit message. See the commit.verbose configuration variable in git-config(1).If specified twice, show in addition the unified diff between what would be committed and the worktree files, i.e. the unstaged changes to tracked files.-q, --quiet
Suppress commit summary message.--dry-run
Do not create a commit, but show a list of paths that are to be committed, paths with local changes that will be left uncommitted and paths that are untracked.--status
Include the output of git-status(1) in the commit message template when using an editor to prepare the commit message. Defaults to on, but can be used to override configuration variable commit.status.--no-status
Do not include the output of git-status(1) in the commit message template when using an editor to prepare the default commit message.-S[<keyid>], --gpg-sign[=<keyid>]
GPG-sign commits. The keyid argument is optional and defaults to the committer identity; if specified, it must be stuck to the option without a space.--no-gpg-sign
Countermand commit.gpgSign configuration variable that is set to force each and every commit to be signed.--
Do not interpret any more arguments as options.<file>...
When files are given on the command line, the command commits the contents of the named files, without recording the changes already staged. The contents of these files are also staged for the next commit on top of what have been staged before.
It is <unix timestamp> <time zone offset>, where <unix timestamp> is the number of seconds since the UNIX epoch. <time zone offset> is a positive or negative offset from UTC. For example CET (which is 1 hour ahead of UTC) is +0100.RFC 2822
The standard email format as described by RFC 2822, for example Thu, 07 Apr 2005 22:13:13 +0200.ISO 8601
Time and date specified by the ISO 8601 standard, for example 2005-04-07T22:13:13. The parser accepts a space instead of the T character as well.NoteIn addition, the date part is accepted in the following formats: YYYY.MM.DD, MM/DD/YYYY and DD.MM.YYYY.
$ edit hello.c $ git rm goodbye.c $ git add hello.c $ git commit
$ edit hello.c $ rm goodbye.c $ git commit -a
$ edit hello.c hello.h $ git add hello.c hello.h $ edit Makefile $ git commit Makefile
$ git commit
$ git status | grep unmerged unmerged: hello.c $ edit hello.c $ git add hello.c
$ git commit
•The contents of the blob objects are uninterpreted sequences of bytes. There is no encoding translation at the core level.
•Path names are encoded in UTF-8 normalization form C. This applies to tree objects, the index file, ref names, as well as path names in command line arguments, environment variables and config files ( .git/config (see git-config(1)), gitignore(5), gitattributes(5) and gitmodules(5)).Note that Git at the core level treats path names simply as sequences of non-NUL bytes, there are no path name encoding conversions (except on Mac and Windows). Therefore, using non-ASCII path names will mostly work even on platforms and file systems that use legacy extended ASCII encodings. However, repositories created on such systems will not work properly on UTF-8-based systems (e.g. Linux, Mac, Windows) and vice versa. Additionally, many Git-based tools simply assume path names to be UTF-8 and will fail to display other encodings correctly.
•Commit log messages are typically encoded in UTF-8, but other extended ASCII encodings are also supported. This includes ISO-8859-x, CP125x and many others, but not UTF-16/32, EBCDIC and CJK multi-byte encodings (GBK, Shift-JIS, Big5, EUC-x, CP9xx etc.).
1.git commit and git commit-tree issues a warning if the commit log message given to it does not look like a valid UTF-8 string, unless you explicitly say your project uses a legacy encoding. The way to say this is to have i18n.commitencoding in .git/config file, like this:Commit objects created with the above setting record the value of i18n.commitEncoding in its encoding header. This is to help other people who look at them later. Lack of this header implies that the commit log message is encoded in UTF-8.
[i18n] commitEncoding = ISO-8859-1
2.git log, git show, git blame and friends look at the encoding header of a commit object, and try to re-code the log message into UTF-8 unless otherwise specified. You can specify the desired output encoding with i18n.logOutputEncoding in .git/config file, like this:If you do not have this configuration variable, the value of i18n.commitEncoding is used instead.
[i18n] logOutputEncoding = ISO-8859-1
This file contains the commit message of a commit in progress. If git commit exits due to an error before creating a commit, any commit message that has been provided by the user (e.g., in an editor session) will be available in this file, but will be overwritten by the next invocation of git commit.git-add(1), git-rm(1), git-mv(1), git-merge(1), git-commit-tree(1) git(1) suite