git fetch [<options>] [<repository> [<refspec>...]] git fetch [<options>] <group> git fetch --multiple [<options>] [(<repository> | <group>)...] git fetch --all [<options>]
Fetch all remotes.-a, --append
Append ref names and object names of fetched refs to the existing contents of .git/FETCH_HEAD. Without this option old data in .git/FETCH_HEAD will be overwritten.--depth=<depth>
Limit fetching to the specified number of commits from the tip of each remote branch history. If fetching to a shallow repository created by git clone with --depth=<depth> option (see git-clone(1)), deepen or shorten the history to the specified number of commits. Tags for the deepened commits are not fetched.--deepen=<depth>
Similar to --depth, except it specifies the number of commits from the current shallow boundary instead of from the tip of each remote branch history.--shallow-since=<date>
Deepen or shorten the history of a shallow repository to include all reachable commits after <date>.--shallow-exclude=<revision>
Deepen or shorten the history of a shallow repository to exclude commits reachable from a specified remote branch or tag. This option can be specified multiple times.--unshallow
If the source repository is complete, convert a shallow repository to a complete one, removing all the limitations imposed by shallow repositories.If the source repository is shallow, fetch as much as possible so that the current repository has the same history as the source repository.--update-shallow
By default when fetching from a shallow repository, git fetch refuses refs that require updating .git/shallow. This option updates .git/shallow and accept such refs.--dry-run
Show what would be done, without making any changes.-f, --force
When git fetch is used with <rbranch>:<lbranch> refspec, it refuses to update the local branch <lbranch> unless the remote branch <rbranch> it fetches is a descendant of <lbranch>. This option overrides that check.-k, --keep
Keep downloaded pack.--multiple
Allow several <repository> and <group> arguments to be specified. No <refspec>s may be specified.-p, --prune
Before fetching, remove any remote-tracking references that no longer exist on the remote. Tags are not subject to pruning if they are fetched only because of the default tag auto-following or due to a --tags option. However, if tags are fetched due to an explicit refspec (either on the command line or in the remote configuration, for example if the remote was cloned with the --mirror option), then they are also subject to pruning. Supplying --prune-tags is a shorthand for providing the tag refspec.See the PRUNING section below for more details.-P, --prune-tags
Before fetching, remove any local tags that no longer exist on the remote if --prune is enabled. This option should be used more carefully, unlike --prune it will remove any local references (local tags) that have been created. This option is a shorthand for providing the explicit tag refspec along with --prune, see the discussion about that in its documentation.See the PRUNING section below for more details.-n, --no-tags
By default, tags that point at objects that are downloaded from the remote repository are fetched and stored locally. This option disables this automatic tag following. The default behavior for a remote may be specified with the remote.<name>.tagOpt setting. See git-config(1).--refmap=<refspec>
When fetching refs listed on the command line, use the specified refspec (can be given more than once) to map the refs to remote-tracking branches, instead of the values of remote.*.fetch configuration variables for the remote repository. See section on "Configured Remote-tracking Branches" for details.-t, --tags
Fetch all tags from the remote (i.e., fetch remote tags refs/tags/* into local tags with the same name), in addition to whatever else would otherwise be fetched. Using this option alone does not subject tags to pruning, even if --prune is used (though tags may be pruned anyway if they are also the destination of an explicit refspec; see --prune).--recurse-submodules[=yes|on-demand|no]
This option controls if and under what conditions new commits of populated submodules should be fetched too. It can be used as a boolean option to completely disable recursion when set to no or to unconditionally recurse into all populated submodules when set to yes, which is the default when this option is used without any value. Use on-demand to only recurse into a populated submodule when the superproject retrieves a commit that updates the submodule’s reference to a commit that isn’t already in the local submodule clone.-j, --jobs=<n>
Number of parallel children to be used for fetching submodules. Each will fetch from different submodules, such that fetching many submodules will be faster. By default submodules will be fetched one at a time.--no-recurse-submodules
Disable recursive fetching of submodules (this has the same effect as using the --recurse-submodules=no option).--submodule-prefix=<path>
Prepend <path> to paths printed in informative messages such as "Fetching submodule foo". This option is used internally when recursing over submodules.--recurse-submodules-default=[yes|on-demand]
This option is used internally to temporarily provide a non-negative default value for the --recurse-submodules option. All other methods of configuring fetch’s submodule recursion (such as settings in gitmodules(5) and git-config(1)) override this option, as does specifying --[no-]recurse-submodules directly.-u, --update-head-ok
By default git fetch refuses to update the head which corresponds to the current branch. This flag disables the check. This is purely for the internal use for git pull to communicate with git fetch, and unless you are implementing your own Porcelain you are not supposed to use it.--upload-pack <upload-pack>
When given, and the repository to fetch from is handled by git fetch-pack, --exec=<upload-pack> is passed to the command to specify non-default path for the command run on the other end.-q, --quiet
Pass --quiet to git-fetch-pack and silence any other internally used git commands. Progress is not reported to the standard error stream.-v, --verbose
Progress status is reported on the standard error stream by default when it is attached to a terminal, unless -q is specified. This flag forces progress status even if the standard error stream is not directed to a terminal.-o <option>, --server-option=<option>
Transmit the given string to the server when communicating using protocol version 2. The given string must not contain a NUL or LF character. When multiple --server-option=<option> are given, they are all sent to the other side in the order listed on the command line.-4, --ipv4
Use IPv4 addresses only, ignoring IPv6 addresses.-6, --ipv6
Use IPv6 addresses only, ignoring IPv4 addresses.<repository>
The "remote" repository that is the source of a fetch or pull operation. This parameter can be either a URL (see the section GIT URLS below) or the name of a remote (see the section REMOTES below).<group>
A name referring to a list of repositories as the value of remotes.<group> in the configuration file. (See git-config(1)).<refspec>
Specifies which refs to fetch and which local refs to update. When no <refspec>s appear on the command line, the refs to fetch are read from remote.<repository>.fetch variables instead (see CONFIGURED REMOTE-TRACKING BRANCHES below).The format of a <refspec> parameter is an optional plus +, followed by the source <src>, followed by a colon :, followed by the destination ref <dst>. The colon can be omitted when <dst> is empty. <src> is typically a ref, but it can also be a fully spelled hex object name.tag <tag> means the same as refs/tags/<tag>:refs/tags/<tag>; it requests fetching everything up to the given tag.The remote ref that matches <src> is fetched, and if <dst> is not empty string, the local ref that matches it is fast-forwarded using <src>. If the optional plus + is used, the local ref is updated even if it does not result in a fast-forward update.NoteWhen the remote branch you want to fetch is known to be rewound and rebased regularly, it is expected that its new tip will not be descendant of its previous tip (as stored in your remote-tracking branch the last time you fetched). You would want to use the + sign to indicate non-fast-forward updates will be needed for such branches. There is no way to determine or declare that a branch will be made available in a repository with this behavior; the pulling user simply must know this is the expected usage pattern for a branch.
[url "<actual url base>"] insteadOf = <other url base>
[url "git://git.host.xz/"] insteadOf = host.xz:/path/to/ insteadOf = work:
[url "<actual url base>"] pushInsteadOf = <other url base>
[url "ssh://example.org/"] pushInsteadOf = git://example.org/
•a remote in the Git configuration file: $GIT_DIR/config,
•a file in the $GIT_DIR/remotes directory, or
•a file in the $GIT_DIR/branches directory.
[remote "<name>"] url = <url> pushurl = <pushurl> push = <refspec> fetch = <refspec>
URL: one of the above URL format Push: <refspec> Pull: <refspec>
[remote "origin"] fetch = +refs/heads/*:refs/remotes/origin/*
•When git fetch is run without specifying what branches and/or tags to fetch on the command line, e.g. git fetch origin or git fetch, remote.<repository>.fetch values are used as the refspecs—they specify which refs to fetch and which local refs to update. The example above will fetch all branches that exist in the origin (i.e. any ref that matches the left-hand side of the value, refs/heads/*) and update the corresponding remote-tracking branches in the refs/remotes/origin/* hierarchy.
•When git fetch is run with explicit branches and/or tags to fetch on the command line, e.g. git fetch origin master, the <refspec>s given on the command line determine what are to be fetched (e.g. master in the example, which is a short-hand for master:, which in turn means "fetch the master branch but I do not explicitly say what remote-tracking branch to update with it from the command line"), and the example command will fetch only the master branch. The remote.<repository>.fetch values determine which remote-tracking branch, if any, is updated. When used in this way, the remote.<repository>.fetch values do not have any effect in deciding what gets fetched (i.e. the values are not used as refspecs when the command-line lists refspecs); they are only used to decide where the refs that are fetched are stored by acting as a mapping.
# While fetching $ git fetch --prune <name> # Only prune, don't fetch $ git remote prune <name>
# These both fetch tags $ git fetch --no-tags origin 'refs/tags/*:refs/tags/*' $ git fetch --no-tags --prune-tags origin
$ git fetch origin --prune --prune-tags $ git fetch origin --prune 'refs/tags/*:refs/tags/*' $ git fetch <url of origin> --prune --prune-tags $ git fetch <url of origin> --prune 'refs/tags/*:refs/tags/*'
<flag> <summary> <from> -> <to> [<reason>]
A single character indicating the status of the ref: (space)summary
for a successfully fetched fast-forward;+
for a successful forced update;-
for a successfully pruned ref;t
for a successful tag update;*
for a successfully fetched new ref;!
for a ref that was rejected or failed to update; and=
for a ref that was up to date and did not need fetching.
For a successfully fetched ref, the summary shows the old and new values of the ref in a form suitable for using as an argument to git log (this is <old>..<new> in most cases, and <old>...<new> for forced non-fast-forward updates).from
The name of the remote ref being fetched from, minus its refs/<type>/ prefix. In the case of deletion, the name of the remote ref is "(none)".to
The name of the local ref being updated, minus its refs/<type>/ prefix.reason
A human-readable explanation. In the case of successfully fetched refs, no explanation is needed. For a failed ref, the reason for failure is described.
•Update the remote-tracking branches:The above command copies all branches from the remote refs/heads/ namespace and stores them to the local refs/remotes/origin/ namespace, unless the branch.<name>.fetch option is used to specify a non-default refspec.
$ git fetch origin
•Using refspecs explicitly:This updates (or creates, as necessary) branches pu and tmp in the local repository by fetching from the branches (respectively) pu and maint from the remote repository.The pu branch will be updated even if it is does not fast-forward, because it is prefixed with a plus sign; tmp will not be.
$ git fetch origin +pu:pu maint:tmp
•Peek at a remote’s branch, without configuring the remote in your local repository:The first command fetches the maint branch from the repository at git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/git/git.git and the second command uses FETCH_HEAD to examine the branch with git-log(1). The fetched objects will eventually be removed by git’s built-in housekeeping (see git-gc(1)).
$ git fetch git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/git/git.git maint $ git log FETCH_HEAD
1.The victim sends "have" lines advertising the IDs of objects it has that are not explicitly intended to be shared but can be used to optimize the transfer if the peer also has them. The attacker chooses an object ID X to steal and sends a ref to X, but isn’t required to send the content of X because the victim already has it. Now the victim believes that the attacker has X, and it sends the content of X back to the attacker later. (This attack is most straightforward for a client to perform on a server, by creating a ref to X in the namespace the client has access to and then fetching it. The most likely way for a server to perform it on a client is to "merge" X into a public branch and hope that the user does additional work on this branch and pushes it back to the server without noticing the merge.)
2.As in #1, the attacker chooses an object ID X to steal. The victim sends an object Y that the attacker already has, and the attacker falsely claims to have X and not Y, so the victim sends Y as a delta against X. The delta reveals regions of X that are similar to Y to the attacker.git-pull(1) git(1) suite