git pull [<options>] [<repository> [<refspec>...]]
A---B---C master on origin / D---E---F---G master ^ origin/master in your repository
A---B---C origin/master / \ D---E---F---G---H master
This is passed to both underlying git-fetch to squelch reporting of during transfer, and underlying git-merge to squelch output during merging.-v, --verbose
Pass --verbose to git-fetch and git-merge.--[no-]recurse-submodules[=yes|on-demand|no]
This option controls if new commits of all populated submodules should be fetched and updated, too (see git-config(1) and gitmodules(5)).If the checkout is done via rebase, local submodule commits are rebased as well.If the update is done via merge, the submodule conflicts are resolved and checked out.
Perform the merge and commit the result. This option can be used to override --no-commit.With --no-commit perform the merge but pretend the merge failed and do not autocommit, to give the user a chance to inspect and further tweak the merge result before committing.--edit, -e, --no-edit
Invoke an editor before committing successful mechanical merge to further edit the auto-generated merge message, so that the user can explain and justify the merge. The --no-edit option can be used to accept the auto-generated message (this is generally discouraged).Older scripts may depend on the historical behaviour of not allowing the user to edit the merge log message. They will see an editor opened when they run git merge. To make it easier to adjust such scripts to the updated behaviour, the environment variable GIT_MERGE_AUTOEDIT can be set to no at the beginning of them.--ff
When the merge resolves as a fast-forward, only update the branch pointer, without creating a merge commit. This is the default behavior.--no-ff
Create a merge commit even when the merge resolves as a fast-forward. This is the default behaviour when merging an annotated (and possibly signed) tag that is not stored in its natural place in refs/tags/ hierarchy.--ff-only
Refuse to merge and exit with a non-zero status unless the current HEAD is already up to date or the merge can be resolved as a fast-forward.-S[<keyid>], --gpg-sign[=<keyid>]
GPG-sign the resulting merge commit. The keyid argument is optional and defaults to the committer identity; if specified, it must be stuck to the option without a space.--log[=<n>], --no-log
In addition to branch names, populate the log message with one-line descriptions from at most <n> actual commits that are being merged. See also git-fmt-merge-msg(1).With --no-log do not list one-line descriptions from the actual commits being merged.--signoff, --no-signoff
Add Signed-off-by line by the committer at the end of the commit log message. The meaning of a signoff depends on the project, but it typically certifies that committer has the rights to submit this work under the same license and agrees to a Developer Certificate of Origin (see http://developercertificate.org/ for more information).With --no-signoff do not add a Signed-off-by line.--stat, -n, --no-stat
Show a diffstat at the end of the merge. The diffstat is also controlled by the configuration option merge.stat.With -n or --no-stat do not show a diffstat at the end of the merge.--squash, --no-squash
Produce the working tree and index state as if a real merge happened (except for the merge information), but do not actually make a commit, move the HEAD, or record $GIT_DIR/MERGE_HEAD (to cause the next git commit command to create a merge commit). This allows you to create a single commit on top of the current branch whose effect is the same as merging another branch (or more in case of an octopus).With --no-squash perform the merge and commit the result. This option can be used to override --squash.-s <strategy>, --strategy=<strategy>
Use the given merge strategy; can be supplied more than once to specify them in the order they should be tried. If there is no -s option, a built-in list of strategies is used instead ( git merge-recursive when merging a single head, git merge-octopus otherwise).-X <option>, --strategy-option=<option>
Pass merge strategy specific option through to the merge strategy.--verify-signatures, --no-verify-signatures
Verify that the tip commit of the side branch being merged is signed with a valid key, i.e. a key that has a valid uid: in the default trust model, this means the signing key has been signed by a trusted key. If the tip commit of the side branch is not signed with a valid key, the merge is aborted.--summary, --no-summary
Synonyms to --stat and --no-stat; these are deprecated and will be removed in the future.--allow-unrelated-histories
By default, git merge command refuses to merge histories that do not share a common ancestor. This option can be used to override this safety when merging histories of two projects that started their lives independently. As that is a very rare occasion, no configuration variable to enable this by default exists and will not be added.-r, --rebase[=false|true|merges|preserve|interactive]
When true, rebase the current branch on top of the upstream branch after fetching. If there is a remote-tracking branch corresponding to the upstream branch and the upstream branch was rebased since last fetched, the rebase uses that information to avoid rebasing non-local changes.When set to merges, rebase using git rebase --rebase-merges so that the local merge commits are included in the rebase (see git-rebase(1) for details).When set to preserve, rebase with the --preserve-merges option passed to git rebase so that locally created merge commits will not be flattened.When false, merge the current branch into the upstream branch.When interactive, enable the interactive mode of rebase.See pull.rebase, branch.<name>.rebase and branch.autoSetupRebase in git-config(1) if you want to make git pull always use --rebase instead of merging.NoteThis is a potentially dangerous mode of operation. It rewrites history, which does not bode well when you published that history already. Do not use this option unless you have read git-rebase(1) carefully.--no-rebase
Override earlier --rebase.--autostash, --no-autostash
Before starting rebase, stash local modifications away (see git-stash(1)) if needed, and apply the stash entry when done. --no-autostash is useful to override the rebase.autoStash configuration variable (see git-config(1)).This option is only valid when "--rebase" is used.
Fetch all remotes.-a, --append
Append ref names and object names of fetched refs to the existing contents of .git/FETCH_HEAD. Without this option old data in .git/FETCH_HEAD will be overwritten.--depth=<depth>
Limit fetching to the specified number of commits from the tip of each remote branch history. If fetching to a shallow repository created by git clone with --depth=<depth> option (see git-clone(1)), deepen or shorten the history to the specified number of commits. Tags for the deepened commits are not fetched.--deepen=<depth>
Similar to --depth, except it specifies the number of commits from the current shallow boundary instead of from the tip of each remote branch history.--shallow-since=<date>
Deepen or shorten the history of a shallow repository to include all reachable commits after <date>.--shallow-exclude=<revision>
Deepen or shorten the history of a shallow repository to exclude commits reachable from a specified remote branch or tag. This option can be specified multiple times.--unshallow
If the source repository is complete, convert a shallow repository to a complete one, removing all the limitations imposed by shallow repositories.If the source repository is shallow, fetch as much as possible so that the current repository has the same history as the source repository.--update-shallow
By default when fetching from a shallow repository, git fetch refuses refs that require updating .git/shallow. This option updates .git/shallow and accept such refs.-f, --force
When git fetch is used with <rbranch>:<lbranch> refspec, it refuses to update the local branch <lbranch> unless the remote branch <rbranch> it fetches is a descendant of <lbranch>. This option overrides that check.-k, --keep
Keep downloaded pack.--no-tags
By default, tags that point at objects that are downloaded from the remote repository are fetched and stored locally. This option disables this automatic tag following. The default behavior for a remote may be specified with the remote.<name>.tagOpt setting. See git-config(1).-u, --update-head-ok
By default git fetch refuses to update the head which corresponds to the current branch. This flag disables the check. This is purely for the internal use for git pull to communicate with git fetch, and unless you are implementing your own Porcelain you are not supposed to use it.--upload-pack <upload-pack>
When given, and the repository to fetch from is handled by git fetch-pack, --exec=<upload-pack> is passed to the command to specify non-default path for the command run on the other end.--progress
Progress status is reported on the standard error stream by default when it is attached to a terminal, unless -q is specified. This flag forces progress status even if the standard error stream is not directed to a terminal.-o <option>, --server-option=<option>
Transmit the given string to the server when communicating using protocol version 2. The given string must not contain a NUL or LF character. When multiple --server-option=<option> are given, they are all sent to the other side in the order listed on the command line.-4, --ipv4
Use IPv4 addresses only, ignoring IPv6 addresses.-6, --ipv6
Use IPv6 addresses only, ignoring IPv4 addresses.<repository>
The "remote" repository that is the source of a fetch or pull operation. This parameter can be either a URL (see the section GIT URLS below) or the name of a remote (see the section REMOTES below).<refspec>
Specifies which refs to fetch and which local refs to update. When no <refspec>s appear on the command line, the refs to fetch are read from remote.<repository>.fetch variables instead (see git-fetch(1)).The format of a <refspec> parameter is an optional plus +, followed by the source <src>, followed by a colon :, followed by the destination ref <dst>. The colon can be omitted when <dst> is empty. <src> is typically a ref, but it can also be a fully spelled hex object name.tag <tag> means the same as refs/tags/<tag>:refs/tags/<tag>; it requests fetching everything up to the given tag.The remote ref that matches <src> is fetched, and if <dst> is not empty string, the local ref that matches it is fast-forwarded using <src>. If the optional plus + is used, the local ref is updated even if it does not result in a fast-forward update.NoteWhen the remote branch you want to fetch is known to be rewound and rebased regularly, it is expected that its new tip will not be descendant of its previous tip (as stored in your remote-tracking branch the last time you fetched). You would want to use the + sign to indicate non-fast-forward updates will be needed for such branches. There is no way to determine or declare that a branch will be made available in a repository with this behavior; the pulling user simply must know this is the expected usage pattern for a branch.NoteThere is a difference between listing multiple <refspec> directly on git pull command line and having multiple remote.<repository>.fetch entries in your configuration for a <repository> and running a git pull command without any explicit <refspec> parameters. <refspec>s listed explicitly on the command line are always merged into the current branch after fetching. In other words, if you list more than one remote ref, git pull will create an Octopus merge. On the other hand, if you do not list any explicit <refspec> parameter on the command line, git pull will fetch all the <refspec>s it finds in the remote.<repository>.fetch configuration and merge only the first <refspec> found into the current branch. This is because making an Octopus from remote refs is rarely done, while keeping track of multiple remote heads in one-go by fetching more than one is often useful.
[url "<actual url base>"] insteadOf = <other url base>
[url "git://git.host.xz/"] insteadOf = host.xz:/path/to/ insteadOf = work:
[url "<actual url base>"] pushInsteadOf = <other url base>
[url "ssh://example.org/"] pushInsteadOf = git://example.org/
•a remote in the Git configuration file: $GIT_DIR/config,
•a file in the $GIT_DIR/remotes directory, or
•a file in the $GIT_DIR/branches directory.
[remote "<name>"] url = <url> pushurl = <pushurl> push = <refspec> fetch = <refspec>
URL: one of the above URL format Push: <refspec> Pull: <refspec>
This can only resolve two heads (i.e. the current branch and another branch you pulled from) using a 3-way merge algorithm. It tries to carefully detect criss-cross merge ambiguities and is considered generally safe and fast.recursive
This can only resolve two heads using a 3-way merge algorithm. When there is more than one common ancestor that can be used for 3-way merge, it creates a merged tree of the common ancestors and uses that as the reference tree for the 3-way merge. This has been reported to result in fewer merge conflicts without causing mismerges by tests done on actual merge commits taken from Linux 2.6 kernel development history. Additionally this can detect and handle merges involving renames, but currently cannot make use of detected copies. This is the default merge strategy when pulling or merging one branch.The recursive strategy can take the following options: oursoctopus
This option forces conflicting hunks to be auto-resolved cleanly by favoring our version. Changes from the other tree that do not conflict with our side are reflected to the merge result. For a binary file, the entire contents are taken from our side.This should not be confused with the ours merge strategy, which does not even look at what the other tree contains at all. It discards everything the other tree did, declaring our history contains all that happened in it.theirs
This is the opposite of ours; note that, unlike ours, there is no theirs merge strategy to confuse this merge option with.patience
With this option, merge-recursive spends a little extra time to avoid mismerges that sometimes occur due to unimportant matching lines (e.g., braces from distinct functions). Use this when the branches to be merged have diverged wildly. See also git-diff(1) --patience.diff-algorithm=[patience|minimal|histogram|myers]
Tells merge-recursive to use a different diff algorithm, which can help avoid mismerges that occur due to unimportant matching lines (such as braces from distinct functions). See also git-diff(1) --diff-algorithm.ignore-space-change, ignore-all-space, ignore-space-at-eol, ignore-cr-at-eol
Treats lines with the indicated type of whitespace change as unchanged for the sake of a three-way merge. Whitespace changes mixed with other changes to a line are not ignored. See also git-diff(1) -b, -w, --ignore-space-at-eol, and --ignore-cr-at-eol.renormalize
•If their version only introduces whitespace changes to a line, our version is used;
•If our version introduces whitespace changes but their version includes a substantial change, their version is used;
•Otherwise, the merge proceeds in the usual way.
This runs a virtual check-out and check-in of all three stages of a file when resolving a three-way merge. This option is meant to be used when merging branches with different clean filters or end-of-line normalization rules. See "Merging branches with differing checkin/checkout attributes" in gitattributes(5) for details.no-renormalize
Disables the renormalize option. This overrides the merge.renormalize configuration variable.no-renames
Turn off rename detection. This overrides the merge.renames configuration variable. See also git-diff(1) --no-renames.find-renames[=<n>]
Turn on rename detection, optionally setting the similarity threshold. This is the default. This overrides the merge.renames configuration variable. See also git-diff(1) --find-renames.rename-threshold=<n>
Deprecated synonym for find-renames=<n>.subtree[=<path>]
This option is a more advanced form of subtree strategy, where the strategy makes a guess on how two trees must be shifted to match with each other when merging. Instead, the specified path is prefixed (or stripped from the beginning) to make the shape of two trees to match.
This resolves cases with more than two heads, but refuses to do a complex merge that needs manual resolution. It is primarily meant to be used for bundling topic branch heads together. This is the default merge strategy when pulling or merging more than one branch.ours
This resolves any number of heads, but the resulting tree of the merge is always that of the current branch head, effectively ignoring all changes from all other branches. It is meant to be used to supersede old development history of side branches. Note that this is different from the -Xours option to the recursive merge strategy.subtree
This is a modified recursive strategy. When merging trees A and B, if B corresponds to a subtree of A, B is first adjusted to match the tree structure of A, instead of reading the trees at the same level. This adjustment is also done to the common ancestor tree.
1.If branch.<name>.merge configuration for the current branch <name> exists, that is the name of the branch at the remote site that is merged.
2.If the refspec is a globbing one, nothing is merged.
3.Otherwise the remote branch of the first refspec is merged.
•Update the remote-tracking branches for the repository you cloned from, then merge one of them into your current branch:Normally the branch merged in is the HEAD of the remote repository, but the choice is determined by the branch.<name>.remote and branch.<name>.merge options; see git-config(1) for details.
$ git pull $ git pull origin
•Merge into the current branch the remote branch next:This leaves a copy of next temporarily in FETCH_HEAD, but does not update any remote-tracking branches. Using remote-tracking branches, the same can be done by invoking fetch and merge:
$ git pull origin next
$ git fetch origin $ git merge origin/next
1.The victim sends "have" lines advertising the IDs of objects it has that are not explicitly intended to be shared but can be used to optimize the transfer if the peer also has them. The attacker chooses an object ID X to steal and sends a ref to X, but isn’t required to send the content of X because the victim already has it. Now the victim believes that the attacker has X, and it sends the content of X back to the attacker later. (This attack is most straightforward for a client to perform on a server, by creating a ref to X in the namespace the client has access to and then fetching it. The most likely way for a server to perform it on a client is to "merge" X into a public branch and hope that the user does additional work on this branch and pushes it back to the server without noticing the merge.)
2.As in #1, the attacker chooses an object ID X to steal. The victim sends an object Y that the attacker already has, and the attacker falsely claims to have X and not Y, so the victim sends Y as a delta against X. The delta reveals regions of X that are similar to Y to the attacker.git-fetch(1), git-merge(1), git-config(1) git(1) suite