|FALLOCATE(2)||Linux Programmer's Manual||FALLOCATE(2)|
#define _GNU_SOURCE /* See feature_test_macros(7) */ #include <fcntl.h>
int fallocate(int fd, int mode, off_t offset, off_t len);
fallocate() allows the caller to directly manipulate the allocated disk space for the file referred to by fd for the byte range starting at offset and continuing for len bytes.
The mode argument determines the operation to be performed on the given range. Details of the supported operations are given in the subsections below.
After a successful call, subsequent writes into the range specified by offset and len are guaranteed not to fail because of lack of disk space.
If the FALLOC_FL_KEEP_SIZE flag is specified in mode, the behavior of the call is similar, but the file size will not be changed even if offset+len is greater than the file size. Preallocating zeroed blocks beyond the end of the file in this manner is useful for optimizing append workloads.
If the FALLOC_FL_UNSHARE flag is specified in mode, shared file data extents will be made private to the file to guarantee that a subsequent write will not fail due to lack of space. Typically, this will be done by performing a copy-on-write operation on all shared data in the file. This flag may not be supported by all filesystems.
Because allocation is done in block size chunks, fallocate() may allocate a larger range of disk space than was specified.
The FALLOC_FL_PUNCH_HOLE flag must be ORed with FALLOC_FL_KEEP_SIZE in mode; in other words, even when punching off the end of the file, the file size (as reported by stat(2)) does not change.
Not all filesystems support FALLOC_FL_PUNCH_HOLE; if a filesystem doesn't support the operation, an error is returned. The operation is supported on at least the following filesystems:
- XFS (since Linux 2.6.38)
- ext4 (since Linux 3.0)
- Btrfs (since Linux 3.7)
- tmpfs(5) (since Linux 3.5)"
A filesystem may place limitations on the granularity of the operation, in order to ensure efficient implementation. Typically, offset and len must be a multiple of the filesystem logical block size, which varies according to the filesystem type and configuration. If a filesystem has such a requirement, fallocate() fails with the error EINVAL if this requirement is violated.
If the region specified by offset plus len reaches or passes the end of file, an error is returned; instead, use ftruncate(2) to truncate a file.
No other flags may be specified in mode in conjunction with FALLOC_FL_COLLAPSE_RANGE.
As at Linux 3.15, FALLOC_FL_COLLAPSE_RANGE is supported by ext4 (only for extent-based files) and XFS.
Zeroing is done within the filesystem preferably by converting the range into unwritten extents. This approach means that the specified range will not be physically zeroed out on the device (except for partial blocks at the either end of the range), and I/O is (otherwise) required only to update metadata.
If the FALLOC_FL_KEEP_SIZE flag is additionally specified in mode, the behavior of the call is similar, but the file size will not be changed even if offset+len is greater than the file size. This behavior is the same as when preallocating space with FALLOC_FL_KEEP_SIZE specified.
Not all filesystems support FALLOC_FL_ZERO_RANGE; if a filesystem doesn't support the operation, an error is returned. The operation is supported on at least the following filesystems:
- XFS (since Linux 3.15)
- ext4, for extent-based files (since Linux 3.15)
- SMB3 (since Linux 3.17)
- Btrfs (since Linux 4.16)
This mode has the same limitations as FALLOC_FL_COLLAPSE_RANGE regarding the granularity of the operation. If the granularity requirements are not met, fallocate() fails with the error EINVAL. If the offset is equal to or greater than the end of file, an error is returned. For such operations (i.e., inserting a hole at the end of file), ftruncate(2) should be used.
No other flags may be specified in mode in conjunction with FALLOC_FL_INSERT_RANGE.
FALLOC_FL_INSERT_RANGE requires filesystem support. Filesystems that support this operation include XFS (since Linux 4.1) and ext4 (since Linux 4.2).
- fd is not a valid file descriptor, or is not opened for writing.
- offset+len exceeds the maximum file size.
- mode is FALLOC_FL_INSERT_RANGE, and the current file size+len exceeds the maximum file size.
- A signal was caught during execution; see signal(7).
- offset was less than 0, or len was less than or equal to 0.
- mode is FALLOC_FL_COLLAPSE_RANGE and the range specified by offset plus len reaches or passes the end of the file.
- mode is FALLOC_FL_INSERT_RANGE and the range specified by offset reaches or passes the end of the file.
- mode is FALLOC_FL_COLLAPSE_RANGE or FALLOC_FL_INSERT_RANGE, but either offset or len is not a multiple of the filesystem block size.
- mode contains one of FALLOC_FL_COLLAPSE_RANGE or FALLOC_FL_INSERT_RANGE and also other flags; no other flags are permitted with FALLOC_FL_COLLAPSE_RANGE or FALLOC_FL_INSERT_RANGE.
- mode is FALLOC_FL_COLLAPSE_RANGE or FALLOC_FL_ZERO_RANGE or FALLOC_FL_INSERT_RANGE, but the file referred to by fd is not a regular file.
- An I/O error occurred while reading from or writing to a filesystem.
- fd does not refer to a regular file or a directory. (If fd is a pipe or FIFO, a different error results.)
- There is not enough space left on the device containing the file referred to by fd.
- This kernel does not implement fallocate().
- The filesystem containing the file referred to by fd does not support this operation; or the mode is not supported by the filesystem containing the file referred to by fd.
- The file referred to by fd is marked immutable (see chattr(1)).
- mode specifies FALLOC_FL_PUNCH_HOLE or FALLOC_FL_COLLAPSE_RANGE or FALLOC_FL_INSERT_RANGE and the file referred to by fd is marked append-only (see chattr(1)).
- The operation was prevented by a file seal; see fcntl(2).
- fd refers to a pipe or FIFO.
- mode specifies FALLOC_FL_COLLAPSE_RANGE or FALLOC_FL_INSERT_RANGE, but the file referred to by fd is currently being executed.