git-add - Add file contents to the index
git add [--verbose | -v] [--dry-run | -n] [--force | -f] [--interactive | -i] [--patch | -p]
[--edit | -e] [--[no-]all | --[no-]ignore-removal | [--update | -u]]
[--intent-to-add | -N] [--refresh] [--ignore-errors] [--ignore-missing] [--renormalize]
[--chmod=(+|-)x] [--] [<pathspec>...]
This command updates the index using the current content found in the working
tree, to prepare the content staged for the next commit. It typically adds the
current content of existing paths as a whole, but with some options it can
also be used to add content with only part of the changes made to the working
tree files applied, or remove paths that do not exist in the working tree
The "index" holds a snapshot of the content of the
working tree, and it is this snapshot that is taken as the contents of the
next commit. Thus after making any changes to the working tree, and before
running the commit command, you must use the add command to add any
new or modified files to the index.
This command can be performed multiple times before a commit. It
only adds the content of the specified file(s) at the time the add command
is run; if you want subsequent changes included in the next commit, then you
must run git add again to add the new content to the index.
The git status command can be used to obtain a summary of
which files have changes that are staged for the next commit.
The git add command will not add ignored files by default.
If any ignored files were explicitly specified on the command line, git
add will fail with a list of ignored files. Ignored files reached by
directory recursion or filename globbing performed by Git (quote your globs
before the shell) will be silently ignored. The git add command can
be used to add ignored files with the -f (force) option.
Please see git-commit(1) for alternative ways to add
content to a commit.
Files to add content from. Fileglobs (e.g. *.c
can be given to add all matching files. Also a leading directory name (e.g.
to add dir/file1
) can be given to
update the index to match the current state of the directory as a whole (e.g.
will record not just a file dir/file1
the working tree, a file dir/file2
added to the working tree, but also
a file dir/file3
removed from the working tree). Note that older
versions of Git used to ignore removed files; use --no-all
you want to add modified or new files but ignore removed ones.
For more details about the <pathspec> syntax, see the
pathspec entry in gitglossary(7).
Don’t actually add the file(s), just show if they
exist and/or will be ignored.
Allow adding otherwise ignored files.
Add modified contents in the working tree interactively
to the index. Optional path arguments may be supplied to limit operation to a
subset of the working tree. See “Interactive mode” for
Interactively choose hunks of patch between the index and
the work tree and add them to the index. This gives the user a chance to
review the difference before adding modified contents to the index.
This effectively runs add --interactive, but bypasses the
initial command menu and directly jumps to the patch subcommand. See
“Interactive mode” for details.
Open the diff vs. the index in an editor and let the user
edit it. After the editor was closed, adjust the hunk headers and apply the
patch to the index.
The intent of this option is to pick and choose lines of the patch
to apply, or even to modify the contents of lines to be staged. This can be
quicker and more flexible than using the interactive hunk selector. However,
it is easy to confuse oneself and create a patch that does not apply to the
index. See EDITING PATCHES below.
Update the index just where it already has an entry
matching <pathspec>. This removes as well as modifies index entries to
match the working tree, but adds no new files.
If no <pathspec> is given when -u option is used, all
tracked files in the entire working tree are updated (old versions of Git
used to limit the update to the current directory and its
-A, --all, --no-ignore-removal
Update the index not only where the working tree has a
file matching <pathspec> but also where the index already has an entry.
This adds, modifies, and removes index entries to match the working tree.
If no <pathspec> is given when -A option is used, all
files in the entire working tree are updated (old versions of Git used to
limit the update to the current directory and its subdirectories).
Update the index by adding new files that are unknown to
the index and files modified in the working tree, but ignore files that have
been removed from the working tree. This option is a no-op when no
<pathspec> is used.
This option is primarily to help users who are used to older
versions of Git, whose "git add <pathspec>..." was a synonym
for "git add --no-all <pathspec>...", i.e. ignored removed
Record only the fact that the path will be added later.
An entry for the path is placed in the index with no content. This is useful
for, among other things, showing the unstaged content of such files with
git diff and committing them with git commit -a.
Don’t add the file(s), but only refresh their
stat() information in the index.
If some files could not be added because of errors
indexing them, do not abort the operation, but continue adding the others. The
command shall still exit with non-zero status. The configuration variable
add.ignoreErrors can be set to true to make this the default
This option can only be used together with --dry-run. By
using this option the user can check if any of the given files would be
ignored, no matter if they are already present in the work tree or not.
By default, git add will warn when adding an
embedded repository to the index without using git submodule add to
create an entry in .gitmodules. This option will suppress the warning
(e.g., if you are manually performing operations on submodules).
Apply the "clean" process freshly to all
tracked files to forcibly add them again to the index. This is useful after
changing core.autocrlf configuration or the text attribute in
order to correct files added with wrong CRLF/LF line endings. This option
Override the executable bit of the added files. The
executable bit is only changed in the index, the files on disk are left
This option can be used to separate command-line options
from the list of files, (useful when filenames might be mistaken for
•Adds content from all *.txt
directory and its subdirectories:
$ git add Documentation/\*.txt
Note that the asterisk * is quoted from the shell in this
example; this lets the command include the files from subdirectories of
When the command enters the interactive mode, it shows the output of the
status subcommand, and then goes into its interactive command loop.
•Considers adding content from all git-*.sh
Because this example lets the shell expand the asterisk (i.e. you
are listing the files explicitly), it does not consider
The command loop shows the list of subcommands available, and
gives a prompt "What now> ". In general, when the prompt ends
with a single >, you can pick only one of the choices given and
type return, like this:
*** Commands ***
1: status 2: update 3: revert 4: add untracked
5: patch 6: diff 7: quit 8: help
What now> 1
You also could say s or sta or status above
as long as the choice is unique.
The main command loop has 6 subcommands (plus help and quit).
This shows the change between HEAD and index (i.e. what
will be committed if you say git commit
), and between index and working
tree files (i.e. what you could stage further before git commit
) for each path. A sample output looks like this:
staged unstaged path
1: binary nothing foo.png
2: +403/-35 +1/-1 git-add--interactive.perl
It shows that foo.png has differences from HEAD (but that is
binary so line count cannot be shown) and there is no difference between
indexed copy and the working tree version (if the working tree version were
also different, binary would have been shown in place of
nothing). The other file, git-add--interactive.perl, has 403 lines
added and 35 lines deleted if you commit what is in the index, but working
tree file has further modifications (one addition and one deletion).
This shows the status information and issues an
"Update>>" prompt. When the prompt ends with double
, you can make more than one selection, concatenated with
whitespace or comma. Also you can say ranges. E.g. "2-5 7,9" to
choose 2,3,4,5,7,9 from the list. If the second number in a range is omitted,
all remaining patches are taken. E.g. "7-" to choose 7,8,9 from the
list. You can say *
to choose everything.
What you chose are then highlighted with *, like this:
staged unstaged path
1: binary nothing foo.png
* 2: +403/-35 +1/-1 git-add--interactive.perl
To remove selection, prefix the input with - like this:
After making the selection, answer with an empty line to stage the
contents of working tree files for selected paths in the index.
This has a very similar UI to update, and the
staged information for selected paths are reverted to that of the HEAD
version. Reverting new paths makes them untracked.
This has a very similar UI to update and
revert, and lets you add untracked paths to the index.
This lets you choose one path out of a status
selection. After choosing the path, it presents the diff between the index and
the working tree file and asks you if you want to stage the change of each
hunk. You can select one of the following options and type return:
y - stage this hunk
n - do not stage this hunk
q - quit; do not stage this hunk or any of the remaining ones
a - stage this hunk and all later hunks in the file
d - do not stage this hunk or any of the later hunks in the file
g - select a hunk to go to
/ - search for a hunk matching the given regex
j - leave this hunk undecided, see next undecided hunk
J - leave this hunk undecided, see next hunk
k - leave this hunk undecided, see previous undecided hunk
K - leave this hunk undecided, see previous hunk
s - split the current hunk into smaller hunks
e - manually edit the current hunk
? - print help
After deciding the fate for all hunks, if there is any hunk that
was chosen, the index is updated with the selected hunks.
You can omit having to type return here, by setting the
configuration variable interactive.singleKey to true.
This lets you review what will be committed (i.e. between
HEAD and index).
Invoking git add -e or selecting e from the interactive hunk
selector will open a patch in your editor; after the editor exits, the result
is applied to the index. You are free to make arbitrary changes to the patch,
but note that some changes may have confusing results, or even result in a
patch that cannot be applied. If you want to abort the operation entirely
(i.e., stage nothing new in the index), simply delete all lines of the patch.
The list below describes some common things you may see in a patch, and which
editing operations make sense on them.
Added content is represented by lines beginning with
"+". You can prevent staging any addition lines by deleting
Removed content is represented by lines beginning with
"-". You can prevent staging their removal by converting the
"-" to a " " (space).
Modified content is represented by "-" lines
(removing the old content) followed by "+" lines (adding the
replacement content). You can prevent staging the modification by converting
"-" lines to " ", and removing "+" lines. Beware
that modifying only half of the pair is likely to introduce confusing changes
to the index.
There are also more complex operations that can be performed. But
beware that because the patch is applied only to the index and not the
working tree, the working tree will appear to "undo" the change in
the index. For example, introducing a new line into the index that is in
neither the HEAD nor the working tree will stage the new line for commit,
but the line will appear to be reverted in the working tree.
Avoid using these constructs, or do so with extreme caution.
removing untouched content
Content which does not differ between the index and
working tree may be shown on context lines, beginning with a " "
(space). You can stage context lines for removal by converting the space to a
"-". The resulting working tree file will appear to re-add the
modifying existing content
One can also modify context lines by staging them for
removal (by converting " " to "-") and adding a
"+" line with the new content. Similarly, one can modify
"+" lines for existing additions or modifications. In all cases, the
new modification will appear reverted in the working tree.
You may also add new content that does not exist in the
patch; simply add new lines, each starting with "+". The addition
will appear reverted in the working tree.
There are also several operations which should be avoided
entirely, as they will make the patch impossible to apply:
•adding context (" ") or removal
•deleting context or removal lines
•modifying the contents of context or removal