git-replace - Create, list, delete refs to replace objects
git replace [-f] <object> <replacement>
git replace [-f] --edit <object>
git replace [-f] --graft <commit> [<parent>...]
git replace [-f] --convert-graft-file
git replace -d <object>...
git replace [--format=<format>] [-l [<pattern>]]
Adds a replace reference in refs/replace/ namespace.
The name of the replace reference is the SHA-1 of the
object that is replaced. The content of the replace reference is the
SHA-1 of the replacement object.
The replaced object and the replacement object must be of the same
type. This restriction can be bypassed using -f.
Unless -f is given, the replace reference must not
There is no other restriction on the replaced and replacement
objects. Merge commits can be replaced by non-merge commits and vice
Replacement references will be used by default by all Git commands
except those doing reachability traversal (prune, pack transfer and
It is possible to disable use of replacement references for any
command using the --no-replace-objects option just after
For example if commit foo has been replaced by commit
$ git --no-replace-objects cat-file commit foo
shows information about commit foo, while:
$ git cat-file commit foo
shows information about commit bar.
The GIT_NO_REPLACE_OBJECTS environment variable can be set
to achieve the same effect as the --no-replace-objects option.
If an existing replace ref for the same object exists, it
will be overwritten (instead of failing).
Delete existing replace refs for the given objects.
Edit an object’s content interactively. The
existing content for <object> is pretty-printed into a temporary file,
an editor is launched on the file, and the result is parsed to create a new
object of the same type as <object>. A replacement ref is then created
to replace <object> with the newly created object. See git-var(1)
for details about how the editor will be chosen.
When editing, provide the raw object contents rather than
pretty-printed ones. Currently this only affects trees, which will be shown in
their binary form. This is harder to work with, but can help when repairing a
tree that is so corrupted it cannot be pretty-printed. Note that you may need
to configure your editor to cleanly read and write binary data.
--graft <commit> [<parent>...]
Create a graft commit. A new commit is created with the
same content as <commit> except that its parents will be
[<parent>...] instead of <commit>'s parents. A replacement ref is
then created to replace <commit> with the newly created commit. Use
--convert-graft-file to convert a $GIT_DIR/info/grafts file and
use replace refs instead.
Creates graft commits for all entries in
$GIT_DIR/info/grafts and deletes that file upon success. The purpose is
to help users with transitioning off of the now-deprecated graft file.
-l <pattern>, --list <pattern>
List replace refs for objects that match the given
pattern (or all if no pattern is given). Typing "git replace"
without arguments, also lists all replace refs.
When listing, use the specified <format>, which can
be one of short, medium and long. When omitted, the
format defaults to short.
The following format are available:
•short: <replaced sha1>
•medium: <replaced sha1> →
•long: <replaced sha1> (<replaced
type>) → <replacement sha1> (<replacement type>)
git-hash-object(1), git-rebase(1), and git-filter-repo,
among other git commands, can be used to create replacement objects from
existing objects. The --edit option can also be used with git
replace to create a replacement object by editing an existing object.
If you want to replace many blobs, trees or commits that are part
of a string of commits, you may just want to create a replacement string of
commits and then only replace the commit at the tip of the target string of
commits with the commit at the tip of the replacement string of commits.
Comparing blobs or trees that have been replaced with those that replace them
will not work properly. And using git reset --hard to go back to a
replaced commit will move the branch to the replacement commit instead of the
There may be other problems when using git rev-list related
to pending objects.