groff_www - groff macros for authoring web pages
This manual page describes the GNU -mwww macro package, which is part of the
groff document formatting system. The manual page is very a basic guide, and
the HTML device driver (grohtml) has been completely rewritten but
still remains as in an alpha state. It has been included into the distribution
so that a lot of people have a chance to test it. Note that this macro file is
automatically called (via the troffrc file) if you use -Thtml or
groff -m www
|[option ...] [input-file ...]
To see the hyperlinks in action, please format this man page with
the grohtml device.
Here is a summary of the functions found in this macro set.
||split output into multiple files
||automatic heading level cut off
||specify colours on a web page
||specify background image
||create a URL using two parameters
||create an FTP reference
||create an HTML email address
||generate an HTML name
||include an image file
||include PNG image
||place PNG on the margin and wrap text around it
||emit automatically collected links.
||produce a horizontal rule
||suppress automatic generation of rules.
||only generate HTML title
||add data to <head> block
||unorder list begin
||unorder list end
||ordered list begin
||ordered list end
||definition list begin
||definition list end
||insert a list item
||generate a drop capital
||pass an HTML raw request to the device driver
||code example begin
||code example end
||place links on left of main text.
||start a new two-column table with links in the left.
||end the two-column table.
||initialize default URL attributes.
Output of the pic, eqn, refer, and tbl
preprocessors is acceptable as input.
- .JOBNAME filename
- Split output into multiple HTML files. A file is split whenever a .SH or
.NH 1 is encountered. Its argument is the file stem name for future
output files. This option is equivalent to grohtml's -j
- .HX n
- Specify the cut off depth when generating links from section headings. For
example, a parameter of 2 would cause grohtml to generate a
list of links for .NH 1 and .NH 2 but not for
.NH 3. Whereas
- tells grohtml that no heading links should be created at all.
Another method for turning automatic headings off is by issuing the
command-line switch -P-l to groff.
- .BCL foreground background active not-visited visited
- This macro takes five parameters: foreground, background, active hypertext
link, hypertext link not yet visited, and visited hypertext link
- .BGIMG imagefile
- the only parameter to this macro is the background image file.
- .URL url [description] [after]
- generates a URL using either one, two or three arguments. The first
parameter is the actual URL, the second is the name of the link, and the
third is optional stuff to be printed immediately afterwards. If
description and after are absent then the URL becomes
the anchor text. Hyphenation is disabled while printing the actual URL;
explicit breakpoints should be inserted with the \: escape. Here is
how to encode foo:
- .URL http://\:foo.\:org/ foo :
- If this is processed by a device other than -Thtml or
-Txhtml it appears as:
- The URL macro can be of any type; for example we can reference
Eric Raymond's pic guide by:
- .URL pic.html "Eric Raymond's pic guide"
- .MTO address [description] [after]
- Generate an email HTML reference. The first argument is mandatory as the
email address. The optional second argument is the text you see in your
browser. If an empty argument is given, address is used instead. An
optional third argument is stuff printed immediately afterwards.
Hyphenation is disabled while printing the actual email address. For
example, Joe User can be
achieved by the following macro:
- .MTO firstname.lastname@example.org "Joe User"
- Note that all the URLs actually are treated as consuming no textual space
in groff. This could be considered as a bug since it causes some problems.
To circumvent this, www.tmac inserts a zero-width character which
expands to a harmless space (only if run with -Thtml or
- .FTP url [description] [after]
- indicates that data can be obtained via FTP. The first argument is the URL
and the second is the browser text. A third argument, similar to the
macros above, is intended for stuff printed immediately afterwards. The
second and the third parameter are optional. Hyphenation is disabled while
printing the actual URL. As an example, here is the location of the
GNU FTP server. The macro
example above can be specified as:
- .FTP ftp://\:ftp.gnu.org/ "GNU FTP server" .
- .TAG name
- Generates an HTML name tag from its argument. This can then be referenced
using the URL macro. As you can see, you
must precede the tag name with # since it is a local reference.
This link was achieved via placing a TAG in the URL description above; the
source looks like this:
a URL using either two or three arguments.
- .IMG [-R|-L|-C] filename [width] [height]
- Include a picture into the document. The first argument is the horizontal
location: right, left, or center (-R, -L, or -C).
Alignment is centered by default (-C). The second argument is the
filename. The optional third and fourth arguments are the width and
height. If the width is absent it defaults to 1 inch. If the height
is absent it defaults to the width. This maps onto an HTML img tag. If you
are including a PNG image then it is advisable to use the PIMG
- .PIMG [-R|-L|-C] filename [width [height]]
- Include an image in PNG format. This macro takes exactly the same
parameters as the IMG macro; it has the advantage of working with
PostScript and HTML devices also since it can automatically convert the
image into the EPS format, using the following programs of the
netpbm package: pngtopnm, pnmcrop, and
pnmtops. If the document isn't processed with -Thtml or
-Txhtml it is necessary to use the -U option of groff.
- .MPIMG [-R|-L] [-G gap] filename [width [height]]
- Place a PNG image on the margin and wrap text around it. The first
parameters are optional. The alignment: left or right (-L or
-R) specifies the margin where the picture is placed at. The
default alignment is left (-L). Optionally,
-G gap can be used to arrange a gap between the
picture and the text that wraps around it. The default gap width is zero.
The first non-optional argument is the filename. The optional following
arguments are the width and height. If the width is absent it defaults to
1 inch. If the height is absent it defaults to the width.
.MPIMG -L -G 2c foo.png 3c 1.5c
- The height and width may also be given as percentages. The PostScript
device calculates the width from the .l register and the height
from the .p register. For example:
.MPIMG -L -G 2c foo.png 15%
- .HnS n
- Begin heading. The numeric heading level n is specified by the
first parameter. Use this macro if your headings contain URL, FTP or MTO
.URL http://groff.ffii.org (Groff)
.URL http://www.gnu.org/ GNU
.URL http://ffii.org/ FFII .
- In this case you might wish to disable automatic links to headings. This
can be done via -P-l from the command line.
- End heading.
- Force grohtml to place the automatically generated links at this position.
If this manual page has been processed with -Thtml or
-Txhtml those links can be seen right here.
- Generate a full-width horizontal rule for -Thtml and
-Txhtml. No effect for all other devices.
- Suppress generation of the top and bottom rules which grohtml emits by
- Generate an HTML title only. This differs from the TL macro of the
ms macro package which generates both an HTML title and an
<H1> heading. Use it to provide an HTML title as search engine
fodder but a graphic title in the document. The macro terminates when a
space or break is seen (.sp, .br).
- Add arbitrary HTML data to the <head> block. Ignored if not
processed with -Thtml or -Txhtml. Example:
.HEAD "<link \
- All text after this macro is treated as raw HTML. If the document is
processed without -Thtml or -Txhtml then the macro is
ignored. Internally, this macro is used as a building block for other
- For example, the BGIMG macro is defined as
. HTML <body background=\\$1>
- .DC l text [color]
- Produce a drop capital. The first parameter is the letter to be dropped
and enlarged, the second parameter text is the adjoining text whose
height the first letter should not exceed. The optional third parameter is
the color of the dropped letter. It defaults to black.
- Start displaying a code section in constant width font.
- End code display
- .ALN [color] [percentage]
- Place section heading links automatically to the left of the main text.
The color argument is optional and if present indicates which HTML
background color is to be used under the links. The optional percentage
indicates the amount of width to devote to displaying the links. The
default values are #eeeeee and 30 for color and percentage width,
respectively. This macro should only be called once at the beginning of
the document. After calling this macro each section heading emits an HTML
table consisting of the links in the left and the section text on the
- Start a new two-column table with links in the left column. This can be
called if the document has text before the first .SH and if .ALN is used.
Typically this is called just before the first paragraph and after the
main title as it indicates that text after this point should be positioned
to the right of the left-hand navigational links.
- End a two-column table. This should be called at the end of the document
if .ALN was used.
- .LINKSTYLE color [ fontstyle [ openglyph closeglyph ] ]
- Initialize default URL attributes to be used if this macro set is not used
with the HTML device. The macro set initializes itself with the following
.LINKSTYLE blue CR \[la] \[ra]
By default grohtml generates links to all section headings and places
these at the top of the HTML document. (See LINKS
for details of how to switch this off or alter the position).
tbl information is currently rendered as a PNG image.
- but these values will be superseded by a user call to LINKSTYLE.