passwd [options] [LOGIN]
•lower case alphabetics
•digits 0 thru 9
•punctuation marksCare must be taken not to include the system default erase or kill characters. passwd will reject any password which is not suitably complex.
This option can be used only with -S and causes show status for all users.-d, --delete
Delete a user's password (make it empty). This is a quick way to disable a password for an account. It will set the named account passwordless.-e, --expire
Immediately expire an account's password. This in effect can force a user to change their password at the user's next login.-h, --help
Display help message and exit.-i, --inactive INACTIVE
This option is used to disable an account after the password has been expired for a number of days. After a user account has had an expired password for INACTIVE days, the user may no longer sign on to the account.-k, --keep-tokens
Indicate password change should be performed only for expired authentication tokens (passwords). The user wishes to keep their non-expired tokens as before.-l, --lock
Lock the password of the named account. This option disables a password by changing it to a value which matches no possible encrypted value (it adds a ´!´ at the beginning of the password). Note that this does not disable the account. The user may still be able to login using another authentication token (e.g. an SSH key). To disable the account, administrators should use usermod --expiredate 1 (this set the account's expire date to Jan 2, 1970). Users with a locked password are not allowed to change their password.-n, --mindays MIN_DAYS
Set the minimum number of days between password changes to MIN_DAYS. A value of zero for this field indicates that the user may change their password at any time.-q, --quiet
Quiet mode.-r, --repository REPOSITORY
change password in REPOSITORY repository-R, --root CHROOT_DIR
Apply changes in the CHROOT_DIR directory and use the configuration files from the CHROOT_DIR directory.-S, --status
Display account status information. The status information consists of 7 fields. The first field is the user's login name. The second field indicates if the user account has a locked password (L), has no password (NP), or has a usable password (P). The third field gives the date of the last password change. The next four fields are the minimum age, maximum age, warning period, and inactivity period for the password. These ages are expressed in days.-u, --unlock
Unlock the password of the named account. This option re-enables a password by changing the password back to its previous value (to the value before using the -l option).-w, --warndays WARN_DAYS
Set the number of days of warning before a password change is required. The WARN_DAYS option is the number of days prior to the password expiring that a user will be warned that their password is about to expire.-x, --maxdays MAX_DAYS
Set the maximum number of days a password remains valid. After MAX_DAYS, the password is required to be changed. Passing the number -1 as MAX_DAYS will remove checking a password's validity.
User account information./etc/shadow
Secure user account information./etc/pam.d/passwd
PAM configuration for passwd.
invalid combination of options3
unexpected failure, nothing done4
unexpected failure, passwd file missing5
passwd file busy, try again6
invalid argument to optionchpasswd(8), passwd(5), shadow(5), usermod(8).