|SEMGET(2)||Linux Programmer's Manual||SEMGET(2)|
#include <sys/types.h> #include <sys/ipc.h> #include <sys/sem.h>
int semget(key_t key, int nsems, int semflg);
A new set of nsems semaphores is created if key has the value IPC_PRIVATE or if no existing semaphore set is associated with key and IPC_CREAT is specified in semflg.
If semflg specifies both IPC_CREAT and IPC_EXCL and a semaphore set already exists for key, then semget() fails with errno set to EEXIST. (This is analogous to the effect of the combination O_CREAT | O_EXCL for open(2).)
Upon creation, the least significant 9 bits of the argument semflg define the permissions (for owner, group and others) for the semaphore set. These bits have the same format, and the same meaning, as the mode argument of open(2) (though the execute permissions are not meaningful for semaphores, and write permissions mean permission to alter semaphore values).
When creating a new semaphore set, semget() initializes the set's associated data structure, semid_ds (see semctl(2)), as follows:
- sem_perm.cuid and sem_perm.uid are set to the effective user ID of the calling process.
- sem_perm.cgid and sem_perm.gid are set to the effective group ID of the calling process.
- The least significant 9 bits of sem_perm.mode are set to the least significant 9 bits of semflg.
- sem_nsems is set to the value of nsems.
- sem_otime is set to 0.
- sem_ctime is set to the current time.
The argument nsems can be 0 (a don't care) when a semaphore set is not being created. Otherwise, nsems must be greater than 0 and less than or equal to the maximum number of semaphores per semaphore set (SEMMSL).
If the semaphore set already exists, the permissions are verified.
- A semaphore set exists for key, but the calling process does not have permission to access the set, and does not have the CAP_IPC_OWNER capability in the user namespace that governs its IPC namespace.
- IPC_CREAT and IPC_EXCL were specified in semflg, but a semaphore set already exists for key.
- nsems is less than 0 or greater than the limit on the number of semaphores per semaphore set (SEMMSL).
- A semaphore set corresponding to key already exists, but nsems is larger than the number of semaphores in that set.
- No semaphore set exists for key and semflg did not specify IPC_CREAT.
- A semaphore set has to be created but the system does not have enough memory for the new data structure.
- A semaphore set has to be created but the system limit for the maximum number of semaphore sets (SEMMNI), or the system wide maximum number of semaphores (SEMMNS), would be exceeded.
IPC_PRIVATE isn't a flag field but a key_t type. If this special value is used for key, the system call ignores all but the least significant 9 bits of semflg and creates a new semaphore set (on success).
Initialization can be done using semctl(2) SETVAL or SETALL operation. Where multiple peers do not know who will be the first to initialize the set, checking for a nonzero sem_otime in the associated data structure retrieved by a semctl(2) IPC_STAT operation can be used to avoid races.
- System-wide limit on the number of semaphore sets. On Linux systems before version 3.19, the default value for this limit was 128. Since Linux 3.19, the default value is 32,000. On Linux, this limit can be read and modified via the fourth field of /proc/sys/kernel/sem.
- Maximum number of semaphores per semaphore ID. On Linux systems before version 3.19, the default value for this limit was 250. Since Linux 3.19, the default value is 32,000. On Linux, this limit can be read and modified via the first field of /proc/sys/kernel/sem.
- System-wide limit on the number of semaphores: policy dependent (on Linux, this limit can be read and modified via the second field of /proc/sys/kernel/sem). Note that the number of semaphores system-wide is also limited by the product of SEMMSL and SEMMNI.