systemd-analyze - Analyze and debug system manager
systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] [time]
systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] blame
systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] critical-chain
systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] plot
systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] dot [PATTERN...]
systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] dump
systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] cat-config
systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] unit-paths
systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] log-level
systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] log-target
systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] syscall-filter
systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] verify
systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] calendar
systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] service-watchdogs
systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] timespan
systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] security
may be used to determine system boot-up performance
statistics and retrieve other state and tracing information from the system
and service manager, and to verify the correctness of unit files. It is also
used to access special functions useful for advanced system manager debugging.
prints the time spent in the kernel before userspace
has been reached, the time spent in the initial RAM disk (initrd) before
normal system userspace has been reached, and the time normal system userspace
took to initialize. Note that these measurements simply measure the time
passed up to the point where all system services have been spawned, but not
necessarily until they fully finished initialization or the disk is idle.
prints a list of all running units, ordered by the
time they took to initialize. This information may be used to optimize boot-up
times. Note that the output might be misleading as the initialization of one
service might be slow simply because it waits for the initialization of
another service to complete. Also note: systemd-analyze blame
display results for services with Type=simple
, because systemd
considers such services to be started immediately, hence no measurement of the
initialization delays can be done.
systemd-analyze critical-chain [UNIT...]
tree of the time-critical chain of units (for each of the specified
s or for the default target otherwise). The time after the unit is
active or started is printed after the "@" character. The time the
unit takes to start is printed after the "+" character. Note that
the output might be misleading as the initialization of one service might
depend on socket activation and because of the parallel execution of units.
prints an SVG graphic detailing which system
services have been started at what time, highlighting the time they spent on
generates textual dependency graph description in dot
format for further processing with the GraphViz dot(1)
tool. Use a
command line like systemd-analyze dot | dot -Tsvg > systemd.svg
generate a graphical dependency tree. Unless --order
is passed, the generated graph will show both ordering and
requirement dependencies. Optional pattern globbing style specifications (e.g.
*.target) may be given at the end. A unit dependency is included in the graph
if any of these patterns match either the origin or destination node.
outputs a (usually very long) human-readable
serialization of the complete server state. Its format is subject to change
without notice and should not be parsed by applications.
is similar to systemctl cat
operates on config files. It will copy the contents of a config file and any
drop-ins to standard output, using the usual systemd set of directories and
rules for precedence. Each argument must be either an absolute path including
the prefix (such as /etc/systemd/logind.conf or /usr/lib/systemd/logind.conf),
or a name relative to the prefix (such as systemd/logind.conf).
Example 1. Showing logind configuration
$ systemd-analyze cat-config systemd/logind.conf
... some override from another package
... some administrator override
outputs a list of all directories from which
unit files, .d overrides, and .wants, .requires symlinks may be loaded.
Combine with --user
to retrieve the list for the user manager instance,
for the global configuration of user manager instances.
Note that this verb prints the list that is compiled into
itself, and does not comunicate with the running
systemctl [--user] [--global] show -p UnitPath --value
to retrieve the actual list that the manager uses, with any empty directories
prints the current log level of the
daemon. If an optional argument LEVEL
is provided, then
the command changes the current log level of the systemd
(accepts the same values as --log-level=
prints the current log target of the
daemon. If an optional argument TARGET
is provided, then
the command changes the current log target of the systemd
(accepts the same values as --log-target=
, described in
systemd-analyze syscall-filter [SET
...] will list system
calls contained in the specified system call set SET
, or all known sets
if no sets are specified. Argument SET
must include the "@"
will load unit files and print warnings if any
errors are detected. Files specified on the command line will be loaded, but
also any other units referenced by them. The full unit search path is formed
by combining the directories for all command line arguments, and the usual
unit load paths (variable $SYSTEMD_UNIT_PATH
is supported, and may be
used to replace or augment the compiled in set of unit load paths; see
). All units files present in the directories containing
the command line arguments will be used in preference to the other paths.
will parse and normalize repetitive calendar
time events, and will calculate when they will elapse next. This takes the
same input as the OnCalendar=
setting in systemd.timer(5)
following the syntax described in systemd.time(7)
prints the current state of service
runtime watchdogs of the systemd
daemon. If an optional boolean
argument is provided, then globally enables or disables the service runtime
watchdogs ( WatchdogSec=
) and emergency actions (e.g. OnFailure=
); see systemd.service(5)
. The hardware
watchdog is not affected by this setting.
parses a time span and outputs the equivalent
value in microseconds, and as a reformatted timespan. The time span should
adhere to the same syntax documented in systemd.time(7)
. Values without
associated magnitudes are parsed as seconds.
analyzes the security and sandboxing settings of
one or more specified service units. If at least one unit name is specified
the security settings of the specified service units are inspected and a
detailed analysis is shown. If no unit name is specified, all currently
loaded, long-running service units are inspected and a terse table with
results shown. The command checks for various security-related service
settings, assigning each a numeric "exposure level" value, depending
on how important a setting is. It then calculates an overall exposure level
for the whole unit, which is an estimation in the range 0.0...10.0 indicating
how exposed a service is security-wise. High exposure levels indicate very
little applied sandboxing. Low exposure levels indicate tight sandboxing and
strongest security restrictions. Note that this only analyzes the per-service
security features systemd itself implements. This means that any additional
security mechanisms applied by the service code itself are not accounted for.
The exposure level determined this way should not be misunderstood: a high
exposure level neither means that there is no effective sandboxing applied by
the service code itself, nor that the service is actually vulnerable to remote
or local attacks. High exposure levels do indicate however that most likely
the service might benefit from additional settings applied to them. Please
note that many of the security and sandboxing settings individually can be
circumvented — unless combined with others. For example, if a service
retains the privilege to establish or undo mount points many of the sandboxing
options can be undone by the service code itself. Due to that is essential
that each service uses the most comprehensive and strict sandboxing and
security settings possible. The tool will take into account some of these
combinations and relationships between the settings, but not all. Also note
that the security and sandboxing settings analyzed here only apply to the
operations executed by the service code itself. If a service has access to an
IPC system (such as D-Bus) it might request operations from other services
that are not subject to the same restrictions. Any comprehensive security and
sandboxing analysis is hence incomplete if the IPC access policy is not
If no command is passed, systemd-analyze time
The following options are understood:
Operates on the system systemd instance. This is the
Operates on the user systemd instance.
Operates on the system-wide configuration for user
When used in conjunction with the dot command (see
above), selects which dependencies are shown in the dependency graph. If
--order is passed, only dependencies of type After= or
Before= are shown. If --require is passed, only dependencies of
type Requires=, Requisite=, Wants= and Conflicts=
are shown. If neither is passed, this shows dependencies of all these
When used in conjunction with the dot
above), this selects which relationships are shown in the dependency graph.
Both options require a glob(7)
pattern as an argument, which will be
matched against the left-hand and the right-hand, respectively, nodes of a
Each of these can be used more than once, in which case the unit name must match
one of the values. When tests for both sides of the relation are present, a
relation must pass both tests to be shown. When patterns are also specified as
positional arguments, they must match at least one side of the relation. In
other words, patterns specified with those two options will trim the list of
edges matched by the positional arguments, if any are given, and fully
determine the list of edges shown otherwise.
When used in conjunction with the critical-chain
command (see above), also show units, which finished timespan earlier,
than the latest unit in the same level. The unit of timespan is seconds
unless specified with a different unit, e.g. "50ms".
Do not invoke man to verify the existence of man pages
listed in Documentation=.
Invoke unit generators, see systemd.generator(7)
Some generators require root privileges. Under a normal user, running with
generators enabled will generally result in some warnings.
With cat-files, show config files underneath the
specified root path PATH.
Execute the operation remotely. Specify a hostname, or a
username and hostname separated by "@", to connect to. The hostname
may optionally be suffixed by a port ssh is listening on, seperated by
":", and then a container name, separated by "/", which
connects directly to a specific container on the specified host. This will use
SSH to talk to the remote machine manager instance. Container names may be
enumerated with machinectl -H HOST. Put IPv6 addresses in
Execute operation on a local container. Specify a
container name to connect to.
Print a short help text and exit.
Print a short version string and exit.
Do not pipe output into a pager.
On success, 0 is returned, a non-zero failure code otherwise.
Example 2. Plots all dependencies of any unit whose name starts
Example 3. Plots the dependencies between all known target
$ systemd-analyze dot 'avahi-daemon.*' | dot -Tsvg > avahi.svg
$ eog avahi.svg
$ systemd-analyze dot --to-pattern='*.target' --from-pattern='*.target' | dot -Tsvg > targets.svg
$ eog targets.svg
The following errors are currently detected:
•unknown sections and directives,
•missing dependencies which are required to start
the given unit,
•man pages listed in Documentation= which
are not found in the system,
•commands listed in ExecStart= and similar
which are not found in the system or not executable.
Example 4. Misspelt directives
Example 5. Missing service units
$ cat ./user.slice
$ systemd-analyze verify ./user.slice
[./user.slice:9] Unknown lvalue 'WhatIsThis' in section 'Unit'
[./user.slice:13] Unknown section 'Service'. Ignoring.
Unit different.service failed to load:
No such file or directory.
Failed to create user.slice/start: Invalid argument
user.slice: man nosuchfile(1) command failed with code 16
$ tail ./a.socket ./b.socket
==> ./a.socket <==
==> ./b.socket <==
$ systemd-analyze verify ./a.socket ./b.socket
Service a.service not loaded, a.socket cannot be started.
Service firstname.lastname@example.org not loaded, b.socket cannot be started.
Pager to use when --no-pager
is not given;
. If neither $SYSTEMD_PAGER
are set, a set of well-known pager implementations are tried in turn,
, until one is found. If no pager
implementation is discovered no pager is invoked. Setting this environment
variable to an empty string or the value "cat" is equivalent to
Override the options passed to less
If the value of $SYSTEMD_LESS
does not include "K", and the
pager that is invoked is less
, Ctrl+C will be ignored by the
executable. This allows less
to handle Ctrl+C itself.
Override the charset passed to less (by default
"utf-8", if the invoking terminal is determined to be UTF-8