systemd-firstboot initializes the most basic system settings
interactively on the first boot, or optionally non-interactively when a system
image is created. The service is started if ConditionFirstBoot=yes is
satisfied. This essentially means that /etc/ is empty, see
systemd.unit(5) for details.
The following settings may be set up:
•The system locale, more specifically the two
locale variables LANG= and LC_MESSAGES
•The system keyboard map
•The system time zone
•The system hostname
•The machine ID of the system
•The root user's password
Each of the fields may either be queried interactively by users,
set non-interactively on the tool's command line, or be copied from a host
system that is used to set up the system image.
If a setting is already initialized, it will not be overwritten
and the user will not be prompted for the setting.
Note that this tool operates directly on the file system and does
not involve any running system services, unlike localectl(1),
timedatectl(1) or hostnamectl(1). This allows
systemd-firstboot to operate on mounted but not booted disk images
and in early boot. It is not recommended to use systemd-firstboot on
the running system while it is up.
The following options are understood:
Takes a directory path as an argument. All paths will be
prefixed with the given alternate root path, including config search
paths. This is useful to operate on a system image mounted to the specified
directory instead of the host system itself.
Takes a path to a disk image file or block device node.
If specified all operations are applied to file system in the indicated disk
image. This is similar to --root=
but operates on file systems stored
in disk images or block devices. The disk image should either contain just a
file system or a set of file systems within a GPT partition table, following
the Discoverable Partitions Specification
. For further information
on supported disk images, see systemd-nspawn(1)
's switch of the same
Sets the system locale, more specifically the
settings. The argument should be a valid
locale identifier, such as "de_DE.UTF-8". This controls the
Sets the system keyboard layout. The argument should be a
valid keyboard map, such as "de-latin1". This controls the
"KEYMAP" entry in the vconsole.conf(5)
Sets the system time zone. The argument should be a valid
time zone identifier, such as "Europe/Berlin". This controls the
Sets the system hostname. The argument should be a
hostname, compatible with DNS. This controls the hostname(5)
Sets the system's machine ID. This controls the
Sets the password of the system's root user. This
creates/modifies the passwd(5)
files. This setting
exists in three forms: --root-password=
accepts the password to set
directly on the command line, --root-password-file=
reads it from a
file and --root-password-hashed=
accepts an already hashed password on
the command line. See shadow(5)
for more information on the format of
the hashed password. Note that it is not recommended to specify plaintext
passwords on the command line, as other users might be able to see them simply
by invoking ps(1)
Sets the shell of the system's root user. This
creates/modifies the passwd(5)
Sets the system's kernel command line. This controls the
/etc/kernel/cmdline file which is used by kernel-install(8)
Prompt the user interactively for a specific basic
setting. Note that any explicit configuration settings specified on the
command line take precedence, and the user is not prompted for it.
Query the user for locale, keymap, timezone, hostname,
root's password, and root's shell. This is equivalent to specifying
--prompt-locale, --prompt-keymap, --prompt-timezone,
--prompt-root-shell in combination.
Copy a specific basic setting from the host. This only
works in combination with --root= (see above).
Copy locale, keymap, time zone and root password from the
host. This is equivalent to specifying --copy-locale,
--copy-keymap, --copy-timezone, --copy-root-password,
--copy-root-shell in combination.
Initialize the system's machine ID to a random ID. This
only works in combination with --root=.
systemd-firstboot doesn't modify existing files unless
--force is specified. For modifications to /etc/passwd and /etc/shadow,
systemd-firstboot only modifies the entry of the "root" user instead
of overwriting the entire file.
Removes the password of the system's root user, enabling
login as root without a password unless the root account is locked. Note that
this is extremely insecure and hence this option should not be used
Takes a boolean argument. By default when prompting the
user for configuration options a brief welcome text is shown before the first
question is asked. Pass false to this option to turn off the welcome
Print a short help text and exit.
Print a short version string and exit.