The link files are read from the files located in the system network directory /usr/lib/systemd/network, the volatile runtime network directory /run/systemd/network, and the local administration network directory /etc/systemd/network. Link files must have the extension .link; other extensions are ignored. All link files are collectively sorted and processed in lexical order, regardless of the directories in which they live. However, files with identical filenames replace each other. Files in /etc have the highest priority, files in /run take precedence over files with the same name in /usr/lib. This can be used to override a system-supplied link file with a local file if needed. As a special case, an empty file (file size 0) or symlink with the same name pointing to /dev/null disables the configuration file entirely (it is "masked").
The link file contains a [Match] section, which determines if a given link file may be applied to a given device, as well as a [Link] section specifying how the device should be configured. The first (in lexical order) of the link files that matches a given device is applied. Note that a default file 99-default.link is shipped by the system. Any user-supplied .link should hence have a lexically earlier name to be considered at all.
See udevadm(8) for diagnosing problems with .link files.
The following keys are accepted:
MACAddress=01:23:45:67:89:ab 00-11-22-33-44-55 AABB.CCDD.EEFF
Example: if a .link file has the following:
Property=ID_MODEL_ID=9999 "ID_VENDOR_FROM_DATABASE=vendor name" "KEY=with \"quotation\""
then, the .link file matches only when an interface has all the above three properties.
Note that specifying a name that the kernel might use for another interface (for example "eth0") is dangerous because the name assignment done by udev will race with the assignment done by the kernel, and only one interface may use the name. Depending on the order of operations, either udev or the kernel will win, making the naming unpredictable. It is best to use some different prefix, for example "internal0"/"external0" or "lan0"/"lan1"/"lan3".
Note that if autonegotiation is enabled, speed and duplex settings are read-only. If autonegotation is disabled, speed and duplex settings are writable if the driver supports multiple link modes.
Defaults to off.
Table 1. Supported advertise values
|Advertise||Speed (Mbps)||Duplex Mode|
By default this is unset, i.e. all possible modes will be
advertised. This option may be specified more than once, in which case all
specified speeds and modes are advertised. If the empty string is assigned
to this option, the list is reset, and all prior assignments have no effect.
The link file 99-default.link that is shipped with systemd defines the default naming policy for links.
[Link] NamePolicy=kernel database onboard slot path MACAddressPolicy=persistent
Example 2. /etc/systemd/network/10-dmz.link
This example assigns the fixed name "dmz0" to the interface with the MAC address 00:a0:de:63:7a:e6:
[Match] MACAddress=00:a0:de:63:7a:e6 [Link] Name=dmz0
NamePolicy= is not set, so Name= takes effect. We use the "10-" prefix to order this file early in the list. Note that it needs to be before "99-link", i.e. it needs a numerical prefix, to have any effect at all.
Example 3. Debugging NamePolicy= assignments
$ sudo SYSTEMD_LOG_LEVEL=debug udevadm test-builtin net_setup_link /sys/class/net/hub0 ... Parsed configuration file /usr/lib/systemd/network/99-default.link Parsed configuration file /etc/systemd/network/10-eth0.link ID_NET_DRIVER=cdc_ether Config file /etc/systemd/network/10-eth0.link applies to device hub0 link_config: autonegotiation is unset or enabled, the speed and duplex are not writable. hub0: Device has name_assign_type=4 Using default interface naming scheme 'v240'. hub0: Policies didn't yield a name, using specified Name=hub0. ID_NET_LINK_FILE=/etc/systemd/network/10-eth0.link ID_NET_NAME=hub0 ...
Explicit Name= configuration wins in this case.
sudo SYSTEMD_LOG_LEVEL=debug udevadm test-builtin net_setup_link /sys/class/net/enp0s31f6 ... Parsed configuration file /usr/lib/systemd/network/99-default.link Parsed configuration file /etc/systemd/network/10-eth0.link Created link configuration context. ID_NET_DRIVER=e1000e Config file /usr/lib/systemd/network/99-default.link applies to device enp0s31f6 link_config: autonegotiation is unset or enabled, the speed and duplex are not writable. enp0s31f6: Device has name_assign_type=4 Using default interface naming scheme 'v240'. enp0s31f6: Policy *keep*: keeping existing userspace name enp0s31f6: Device has addr_assign_type=0 enp0s31f6: MAC on the device already matches policy *persistent* ID_NET_LINK_FILE=/usr/lib/systemd/network/99-default.link ...
In this case, the interface was already renamed, so the keep policy specified as the first option in 99-default.link means that the existing name is preserved. If keep was removed, or if were in boot before the renaming has happened, we might get the following instead:
enp0s31f6: Policy *path* yields "enp0s31f6". enp0s31f6: Device has addr_assign_type=0 enp0s31f6: MAC on the device already matches policy *persistent* ID_NET_LINK_FILE=/usr/lib/systemd/network/99-default.link ID_NET_NAME=enp0s31f6 ...
Please note that the details of output are subject to change.
Example 4. /etc/systemd/network/10-internet.link
This example assigns the fixed name "internet0" to the interface with the device path "pci-0000:00:1a.0-*":
[Match] Path=pci-0000:00:1a.0-* [Link] Name=internet0
Example 5. /etc/systemd/network/25-wireless.link
Here's an overly complex example that shows the use of a large number of [Match] and [Link] settings.
[Match] MACAddress=12:34:56:78:9a:bc Driver=brcmsmac Path=pci-0000:02:00.0-* Type=wlan Virtualization=no Host=my-laptop Architecture=x86-64 [Link] Name=wireless0 MTUBytes=1450 BitsPerSecond=10M WakeOnLan=magic MACAddress=cb:a9:87:65:43:21