|UMOUNT(2)||Linux Programmer's Manual||UMOUNT(2)|
int umount(const char *target);
int umount2(const char *target, int flags);
Appropriate privilege (Linux: the CAP_SYS_ADMIN capability) is required to unmount filesystems.
Linux 2.1.116 added the umount2() system call, which, like umount(), unmounts a target, but allows additional flags controlling the behavior of the operation:
- MNT_FORCE (since Linux 2.1.116)
- Ask the filesystem to abort pending requests before attempting the unmount. This may allow the unmount to complete without waiting for an inaccessible server, but could cause data loss. If, after aborting requests, some processes still have active references to the filesystem, the unmount will still fail. As at Linux 4.12, MNT_FORCE is supported only on the following filesystems: 9p (since Linux 2.6.16), ceph (since Linux 2.6.34), cifs (since Linux 2.6.12), fuse (since Linux 2.6.16), lustre (since Linux 3.11), and NFS (since Linux 2.1.116).
- MNT_DETACH (since Linux 2.4.11)
- Perform a lazy unmount: make the mount point unavailable for new accesses, immediately disconnect the filesystem and all filesystems mounted below it from each other and from the mount table, and actually perform the unmount when the mount point ceases to be busy.
- MNT_EXPIRE (since Linux 2.6.8)
- Mark the mount point as expired. If a mount point is not currently in use, then an initial call to umount2() with this flag fails with the error EAGAIN, but marks the mount point as expired. The mount point remains expired as long as it isn't accessed by any process. A second umount2() call specifying MNT_EXPIRE unmounts an expired mount point. This flag cannot be specified with either MNT_FORCE or MNT_DETACH.
- UMOUNT_NOFOLLOW (since Linux 2.6.34)
- Don't dereference target if it is a symbolic link. This flag allows security problems to be avoided in set-user-ID-root programs that allow unprivileged users to unmount filesystems.
- A call to umount2() specifying MNT_EXPIRE successfully marked an unbusy filesystem as expired.
- target could not be unmounted because it is busy.
- target points outside the user address space.
- target is not a mount point.
- umount2() was called with MNT_EXPIRE and either MNT_DETACH or MNT_FORCE.
- EINVAL (since Linux 2.6.34)
- umount2() was called with an invalid flag value in flags.
- A pathname was longer than MAXPATHLEN.
- A pathname was empty or had a nonexistent component.
- The kernel could not allocate a free page to copy filenames or data into.
- The caller does not have the required privileges.
This propagation of unmount activity can be particularly surprising on systems where every mount point is shared by default. On such systems, recursively bind mounting the root directory of the filesystem onto a subdirectory and then later unmounting that subdirectory with MNT_DETACH will cause every mount in the mount namespace to be lazily unmounted.
To ensure umount() does not propagate in this fashion, the mount point may be remounted using a mount(2) call with a mount_flags argument that includes both MS_REC and MS_PRIVATE prior to umount() being called.