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USERDEL(8) 系统管理命令 USERDEL(8)

userdel - 删除用户账户和相关文件

userdel [选项] 登录

The userdel command modifies the system account files, deleting all entries that refer to the user name LOGIN. The named user must exist.

The options which apply to the userdel command are:

-f, --force

This option forces the removal of the user account, even if the user is still logged in. It also forces userdel to remove the user's home directory and mail spool, even if another user uses the same home directory or if the mail spool is not owned by the specified user. If USERGROUPS_ENAB is defined to yes in /etc/login.defs and if a group exists with the same name as the deleted user, then this group will be removed, even if it is still the primary group of another user.

Note: This option is dangerous and may leave your system in an inconsistent state.

-h, --help


-r, --remove


The mail spool is defined by the MAIL_DIR variable in the login.defs file.

-R, --root CHROOT_DIR

Apply changes in the CHROOT_DIR directory and use the configuration files from the CHROOT_DIR directory.

-P, --prefix PREFIX_DIR

Apply changes in the PREFIX_DIR directory and use the configuration files from the PREFIX_DIR directory. This option does not chroot and is intended for preparing a cross-compilation target. Some limitations: NIS and LDAP users/groups are not verified. PAM authentication is using the host files. No SELINUX support.

-Z, --selinux-user

移除用户登录的所有 SELinux 用户映射。

The following configuration variables in /etc/login.defs change the behavior of this tool:

MAIL_DIR (string)


MAIL_FILE (string)


The MAIL_DIR and MAIL_FILE variables are used by useradd, usermod, and userdel to create, move, or delete the user's mail spool.

If MAIL_CHECK_ENAB is set to yes, they are also used to define the MAIL environment variable.


Maximum members per group entry. When the maximum is reached, a new group entry (line) is started in /etc/group (with the same name, same password, and same GID).

默认值是 0,意味着组中的成员数没有限制。

此功能(分割组)允许限制组文件中的行长度。这对于确保 NIS 组的行比长于 1024 字符。

如果要强制这个限制,可以使用 25。

注意:分割组可能不受所有工具的支持(甚至在 Shadow 工具集中)。您不应该使用这个变量,除非真的需要。

USERDEL_CMD (string)

如果定义了,这是删除账户时执行的命令。它应该移除所有属于此用户的的 at/cron/print 等作业(作为第一个参数传递)。


Here is an example script, which removes the user's cron, at and print jobs:

#! /bin/sh
# Check for the required argument.
if [ $# != 1 ]; then
	echo "Usage: $0 username"
	exit 1
# Remove cron jobs.
crontab -r -u $1
# Remove at jobs.
# Note that it will remove any jobs owned by the same UID,
# even if it was shared by a different username.
find $AT_SPOOL_DIR -name "[^.]*" -type f -user $1 -delete \;
# Remove print jobs.
lprm $1
# All done.
exit 0


如果 uid 和 gid 相同,用户名和主用户名也相同,使非 root 组的组掩码位和属主位相同 (如:022 -> 002, 077 -> 007)。

If set to yes, userdel will remove the user's group if it contains no more members, and useradd will create by default a group with the name of the user.



Shadow 密码套件配置。






Per user subordinate group IDs.


Per user subordinate user IDs.

The userdel command exits with the following values:




can't update password file


invalid command syntax


specified user doesn't exist


user currently logged in


can't update group file


can't remove home directory

userdel will not allow you to remove an account if there are running processes which belong to this account. In that case, you may have to kill those processes or lock the user's password or account and remove the account later. The -f option can force the deletion of this account.


您不能在 NIS 客户端上移除任何 NIS 属性。这必须在 NIS 服务器上执行。

If USERGROUPS_ENAB is defined to yes in /etc/login.defs, userdel will delete the group with the same name as the user. To avoid inconsistencies in the passwd and group databases, userdel will check that this group is not used as a primary group for another user, and will just warn without deleting the group otherwise. The -f option can force the deletion of this group.

chfn(1), chsh(1), passwd(1), login.defs(5), gpasswd(8), groupadd(8), groupdel(8), groupmod(8), subgid(5), subuid(5), useradd(8), usermod(8).
2020-01-23 shadow-utils 4.8.1