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USERMOD(8) Befehle zur Systemverwaltung USERMOD(8)

usermod - verändert ein Benutzerkonto

usermod [Optionen] ANMELDENAME

The usermod command modifies the system account files to reflect the changes that are specified on the command line.

The options which apply to the usermod command are:

-a, --append

Add the user to the supplementary group(s). Use only with the -G option.

-b, --badnames

Allow names that do not conform to standards.

-c, --comment COMMENT

The new value of the user's password file comment field. It is normally modified using the chfn(1) utility.

-d, --home HOME_DIR

das neue Home-Verzeichnis des Benutzers

If the -m option is given, the contents of the current home directory will be moved to the new home directory, which is created if it does not already exist.

-e, --expiredate EXPIRE_DATE

The date on which the user account will be disabled. The date is specified in the format YYYY-MM-DD.

An empty EXPIRE_DATE argument will disable the expiration of the account.

This option requires a /etc/shadow file. A /etc/shadow entry will be created if there were none.

-f, --inactive INACTIVE

Die Anzahl von Tagen, nach denen ein Passwort abgelaufen ist, bis das Konto deaktiviert wird.

Ein Wert von 0 deaktiviert das Konto, sobald das Passwort abläuft. Ein Wert von -1 schaltet diese Funktion ab.

This option requires a /etc/shadow file. A /etc/shadow entry will be created if there were none.

-g, --gid GROUP

Der Name oder die Zahl der anfänglichen Anmeldegruppe eines neuen Benutzers. Der Gruppenname muss existieren.

Jede Datei im Home-Verzeichnis des Benutzers, die der alten Hauptgruppe des Benutzers gehörte, wird dieser neuen Gruppe gehören.

Die Gruppenzugehörigkeit von Dateien außerhalb des Home-Verzeichnisses des Benutzers muss per Hand angepasst werden.

-G, --groups GROUP1[,GROUP2,...[,GROUPN]]]

A list of supplementary groups which the user is also a member of. Each group is separated from the next by a comma, with no intervening whitespace. The groups are subject to the same restrictions as the group given with the -g option.

If the user is currently a member of a group which is not listed, the user will be removed from the group. This behaviour can be changed via the -a option, which appends the user to the current supplementary group list.

-l, --login NEW_LOGIN

The name of the user will be changed from LOGIN to NEW_LOGIN. Nothing else is changed. In particular, the user's home directory or mail spool should probably be renamed manually to reflect the new login name.

-L, --lock

Lock a user's password. This puts a '!' in front of the encrypted password, effectively disabling the password. You can't use this option with -p or -U.

Note: if you wish to lock the account (not only access with a password), you should also set the EXPIRE_DATE to 1.

-m, --move-home

verschiebt den Inhalt des Home-Verzeichnisses eines Benutzers zu dem neuen Ziel

This option is only valid in combination with the -d (or --home) option.

usermod will try to adapt the ownership of the files and to copy the modes, ACL and extended attributes, but manual changes might be needed afterwards.

-o, --non-unique

When used with the -u option, this option allows to change the user ID to a non-unique value.

-p, --password PASSWORD

The encrypted password, as returned by crypt(3).

Note: This option is not recommended because the password (or encrypted password) will be visible by users listing the processes.

Sie sollten sicherstellen, dass das Passwort den Passwortrichtlinien des Systems entspricht.

-R, --root CHROOT_DIR

Apply changes in the CHROOT_DIR directory and use the configuration files from the CHROOT_DIR directory.

-P, --prefix PREFIX_DIR

Apply changes in the PREFIX_DIR directory and use the configuration files from the PREFIX_DIR directory. This option does not chroot and is intended for preparing a cross-compilation target. Some limitations: NIS and LDAP users/groups are not verified. PAM authentication is using the host files. No SELINUX support.

-s, --shell SHELL

Der Name der neuen Anmelde-Shell des Benutzers. Falls dieses Feld leer gelassen wird, verwendet das System die Standard-Anmelde-Shell.

-u, --uid UID

der neue numerische Wert der UID des Benutzers

This value must be unique, unless the -o option is used. The value must be non-negative.

Für die Mailbox des Benutzers und alle Dateien, die ihm gehören und sich in seinem Home-Verzeichnis befinden, wird die ID des Eigentümers automatisch angepasst.

Der Eigentümer von Dateien außerhalb des Home-Verzeichnisses des Benutzers muss per Hand angepasst werden.

No checks will be performed with regard to the UID_MIN, UID_MAX, SYS_UID_MIN, or SYS_UID_MAX from /etc/login.defs.

-U, --unlock

Unlock a user's password. This removes the '!' in front of the encrypted password. You can't use this option with -p or -L.

Note: if you wish to unlock the account (not only access with a password), you should also set the EXPIRE_DATE (for example to 99999, or to the EXPIRE value from /etc/default/useradd).

-v, --add-subuids FIRST-LAST

Add a range of subordinate uids to the user's account.

This option may be specified multiple times to add multiple ranges to a users account.

No checks will be performed with regard to SUB_UID_MIN, SUB_UID_MAX, or SUB_UID_COUNT from /etc/login.defs.

-V, --del-subuids FIRST-LAST

Remove a range of subordinate uids from the user's account.

This option may be specified multiple times to remove multiple ranges to a users account. When both --del-subuids and --add-subuids are specified, the removal of all subordinate uid ranges happens before any subordinate uid range is added.

No checks will be performed with regard to SUB_UID_MIN, SUB_UID_MAX, or SUB_UID_COUNT from /etc/login.defs.

-w, --add-subgids FIRST-LAST

Add a range of subordinate gids to the user's account.

This option may be specified multiple times to add multiple ranges to a users account.

No checks will be performed with regard to SUB_GID_MIN, SUB_GID_MAX, or SUB_GID_COUNT from /etc/login.defs.

-W, --del-subgids FIRST-LAST

Remove a range of subordinate gids from the user's account.

This option may be specified multiple times to remove multiple ranges to a users account. When both --del-subgids and --add-subgids are specified, the removal of all subordinate gid ranges happens before any subordinate gid range is added.

No checks will be performed with regard to SUB_GID_MIN, SUB_GID_MAX, or SUB_GID_COUNT from /etc/login.defs.

-Z, --selinux-user SEUSER

der neue SELinux-Benutzer für den Anmeldenamen des Benutzers

A blank SEUSER will remove the SELinux user mapping for user LOGIN (if any).

You must make certain that the named user is not executing any processes when this command is being executed if the user's numerical user ID, the user's name, or the user's home directory is being changed. usermod checks this on Linux. On other platforms it only uses utmp to check if the user is logged in.

You must change the owner of any crontab files or at jobs manually.

Sie müssen alle Änderung in Bezug auf NIS auf dem NIS-Server vornehmen.

The following configuration variables in /etc/login.defs change the behavior of this tool:

LASTLOG_UID_MAX (number)

Highest user ID number for which the lastlog entries should be updated. As higher user IDs are usually tracked by remote user identity and authentication services there is no need to create a huge sparse lastlog file for them.

No LASTLOG_UID_MAX option present in the configuration means that there is no user ID limit for writing lastlog entries.

MAIL_DIR (string)

Das Verzeichnis des Mail-Spools. Diese Angabe wird benötigt, um die Mailbox zu bearbeiten, nachdem das entsprechende Benutzerkonto verändert oder gelöscht wurde. Falls nicht angegeben, wird ein Standard verwendet, der beim Kompilieren festgelegt wurde.

MAIL_FILE (string)

Legt den Ort der Mail-Spool-Dateien eines Benutzers relativ zu seinem Home-Verzeichnis fest.

The MAIL_DIR and MAIL_FILE variables are used by useradd, usermod, and userdel to create, move, or delete the user's mail spool.

If MAIL_CHECK_ENAB is set to yes, they are also used to define the MAIL environment variable.

MAX_MEMBERS_PER_GROUP (number)

Maximum members per group entry. When the maximum is reached, a new group entry (line) is started in /etc/group (with the same name, same password, and same GID).

Der Standardwert ist 0, was zur Folge hat, dass die Anzahl der Mitglieder einer Gruppe nicht begrenzt ist.

Diese Fähigkeit (der aufgeteilten Gruppe) ermöglicht es, die Zeilenlänge in der Gruppendatei zu begrenzen. Damit kann sichergestellt werden, dass die Zeilen für NIS-Gruppen nicht länger als 1024 Zeichen sind.

Falls Sie eine solche Begrenzung benötigen, können Sie 25 verwenden.

Hinweis: Aufgeteilte Gruppen werden möglicherweise nicht von allen Werkzeugen unterstützt, selbst nicht aus der Shadow-Werkzeugsammlung. Sie sollten diese Variable nur setzen, falls Sie zwingend darauf angewiesen sind.

SUB_GID_MIN (number), SUB_GID_MAX (number), SUB_GID_COUNT (number)

If /etc/subuid exists, the commands useradd and newusers (unless the user already have subordinate group IDs) allocate SUB_GID_COUNT unused group IDs from the range SUB_GID_MIN to SUB_GID_MAX for each new user.

The default values for SUB_GID_MIN, SUB_GID_MAX, SUB_GID_COUNT are respectively 100000, 600100000 and 65536.

SUB_UID_MIN (number), SUB_UID_MAX (number), SUB_UID_COUNT (number)

If /etc/subuid exists, the commands useradd and newusers (unless the user already have subordinate user IDs) allocate SUB_UID_COUNT unused user IDs from the range SUB_UID_MIN to SUB_UID_MAX for each new user.

The default values for SUB_UID_MIN, SUB_UID_MAX, SUB_UID_COUNT are respectively 100000, 600100000 and 65536.

/etc/group
Informationen zu den Gruppenkonten

/etc/gshadow

sichere Informationen zu den Gruppenkonten

/etc/login.defs

Konfiguration der Shadow-Passwort-Werkzeugsammlung

/etc/passwd

Informationen zu den Benutzerkonten

/etc/shadow

verschlüsselte Informationen zu den Benutzerkonten

/etc/subgid

Per user subordinate group IDs.

/etc/subuid

Per user subordinate user IDs.

chfn(1), chsh(1), passwd(1), crypt(3), gpasswd(8), groupadd(8), groupdel(8), groupmod(8), login.defs(5), subgid(5), subuid(5), useradd(8), userdel(8).
23.01.2020 shadow-utils 4.8.1